Chapter wise Tips for CBSE Class 12 Chemistry

Chapter 1 – The Solid State

  • Calculation of number of particles per unit cell of a cubic crystal system
  • Tetrahedral and octahedral voids & Radius ratio rules
  • Point defects- Schottky defects & Frenkel defects
  • Magnetic properties of solids- Ferromagnetic substances & antiferromagnetic substances.

 

Chapter – 2 Solutions

  • Types of solutions – Ideal solution, Isotonic solution, Hypnotic solution
  • Henry’s Law – Expressing concentration of solutions
  • Raoult’s Law- Ideal and Non ideal solution
  • Positive and Negative deviation – azeotropes
  • Osmosis and osmotic pressure – Van’t Hoff factor
  • Colligative properties, Molality, Abnormal Molar mass

 

Chapter – 3 Electrochemistry

  • Conductivity and molar conductivity with concentration – Kohlrausch law
  • Electrolytic cells, Electrochemical cells, Galvanic cells, Fuel cells, Batteries
  • Nernst equation, EMF cell and relation with Equilibrium Constant & Gibbs Free energy.

 

Chapter – 4 Chemical Kinetics

  • Rate of a chemical reaction & Factors influencing rate of a reaction
  • Order of a reaction & Molecularity of a reaction
  • Pseudo first order reaction
  • Activation energy of a reaction

 

Chapter – 5 Surface Chemistry

  • Adsorption – Physiosorption and Chemisorption
  • Colloids & Preparation of colloids
  • Coagulation of colloidal solution- lyophobic and lyophobic colloids
  • Homogeneous catalysis and Heterogeneous catalysis

 

Chapter – 6 General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

  • Occurrence of metals & Concentration of ores
  • Extractions of crude metal from concentrated ore
  • Principles behind the refining of metals- Zone refining method, Chromatographic method, Froth floatation method, Electrolytic refining, Vapour phase refining

 

Chapter – 7 p-block Elements

  • Group 15 elements- Dinitrogen, Ammonia, Nitric acid and oxides of nitrogen
  • Group 15 elements- Phosphorus – allotropic forms, Oxoacids of phosphorus
  • Group 16 elements- Dioxygen, Ozone, Sulphur – allotropic forms, Oxoacids of sulphur
  • Group 17 elements- Oxoacids of halogens, Hydrogen chloride, Interhalogen compounds
  • Group 18 elements – Noble gases, Xenon compounds & reaction

 

 Chapter – 8 d & f block Elements

  • General properties of the transition elements (d-block)
  • Transition elements & their characteristics
  • Chemistry of lanthanoids and of actinoids.

 

Chapter – 9 Coordination Compounds

  • Nomenclature of coordination compounds
  • Isomerism in coordination compounds – Geometric and optical isomerism
  • Crystal field theory, undictated, bidentate and ambidentate ligands.

 

Chapter – 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

  • Nomenclature and Nature of C-X bond
  • Reactions of haloarenes- SN1 & SN2
  • Chemical reactions

 

Chapter – 11 Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

  • Nomenclature and structure of compounds
  • Physical properties of Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Chemical reactions- “Reimer-Tiemann, Kolbe’s reaction, Williamson synthesis, Grignard’s reagent, Bromination, Hydroboration.

 

Chapter – 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic acid

  • Nomenclature and structure of carbonyl group
  • Properties of Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Chemical Reactions – Wolff-Kishner, Etard reaction, Cannizzaro’s reaction, Clemmensen reduction, aldol condensation, Decarboxylation, Acetylation, Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction

 

Chapter – 13 Amines

  • Nomenclature of Amines
  • Physical properties of Amine & Diazonium salts
  • Chemical reaction- Hoffmann’s bromamide, Carbylamines reaction, Gabriel phthalimide synthesis.

Chapter – 14 Biomolecules

  • Monosaccharaides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides
  • Structure of proteins & Amino acids
  • Structure of nucleic acids

 

Chapter – 15 Polymers

  • Classification of polymers, name & structure of polymers
  • Step growth polymerization
  • Biodegradable polymers

 

Chapter – 16 Chemistry in Everyday life

  • Drugs and their classification
  • Therapeutic action of different classes of drugs
  • Chemicals in food
  • Biodegradable and non-biodegradable detergents

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