### CBSE Physics Class-12 # CBSE Physics Class 12

CBSE CLASS 12 Physics: AN OVERVIEW

Class 12 board examination is a benchmark in a student’s academic career; it opens many doors for the students in the future for a promising career.

So, are you among those students who want to make a turning point in your career? If yes, then you need to understand the CBSE Class 12 subject-wise syllabus and make a thorough preparation.

CBSE Class 12 syllabus is provided here by SpeEdLabs, to help the students in their journey towards the preparation for the 2021-2022 academic years. The syllabus is designed as per the NCERT (National Council of Education and Research Training). A new bifurcated syllabus has been released by the board and the board exams will be conducted in two parts. This step has been taken for the worldwide spread of Covid-19. Here, we are providing the syllabus along with other necessary details for CBSE Class 12 for all subjects.

Below we have provided all the information regarding CBSE Class 12 exams for the academic years 2021-2022.

In CBSE Class 12, the students learn many new fundamentals in Mathematics and with the help of some basic knowledge from class 11; it doesn’t get them in much trouble. They will have a clear notion about the syllabus structure and the marking scheme for the entire academic year. This will help them to prepare in a better way with proper instructions and knowledge.

# CBSE Physics Class 12 Syllabus

Physics Class XII (Code N. 042) (2021-22)

Syllabus assigned for Term I (Theory)

Time: 90 Minutes                                                                                                               Max Marks: 35

 No. of Periods Marks Unit–I Electrostatics 23 17 Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance Unit-II Current Electricity 15 Chapter–3: Current Electricity Unit-III Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism 16 18 Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter Unit-IV Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents 19 Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction  Chapter 7: Alternating currents Total 73 35

## Unit I: Electrostatics (23 Periods)

### Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields

Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-force between two-point charges, forces  between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field,  electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole,  torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its  applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet

### Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system  of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two-point charges and  of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges  inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of  capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without  dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.

## Unit II: Current Electricity (15 Periods)

### Chapter–3: Current Electricity

Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their  relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity; temperature dependence  of resistance. Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells  in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications, Wheatstone bridge, metre  bridge(qualitative ideas only). Potentiometer – principle and its applications to measure potential  difference and for comparing EMF of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell  (qualitative ideas only)

## Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism (16 Periods )

### Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot – Savart law and its application to current  carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and  toroidal solenoids (only qualitative treatment), force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and  electric fields. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, force between two  parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere, torque experienced by a current loop in  uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter  and voltmeter.

### Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter

Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, magnetic dipole moment of a  revolving electron, bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; earth’s magnetic field  and magnetic elements.

## Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents (19 Periods )

### Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s laws, induced EMF and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self  and mutual induction.

### Chapter–7: Alternating Current

Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance;  LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits. AC  generator and transformer.

## Syllabus assigned for Practical for Term I

Total Periods:16

First term practical examination will be organised by schools as per the directions of CBSE. The record  to be submitted by the students at the time of first term examination has to include a record of at least  4 Experiments and 3 Activities to be demonstrated by teacher.

Time Allowed: one and half hours                                                                                   Max. Marks: 15

 Two experiments to be performed by students at time of examination 8 marks Practical record [experiments and activities] 2 marks Viva on experiments, and activities 5 marks Total 15 marks

Experiments assigned for Term I

1. To determine resistivity of two / three wires by plotting a graph between potential difference  versus current.

2. To find resistance of a given wire / standard resistor using metre bridge.

OR

To verify the laws of combination (series) of resistances using a metre bridge.

OR

To verify the laws of combination (parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge. 3. To compare the EMF of two given primary cells using potentiometer.

OR

To determine the internal resistance of given primary cell using potentiometer. 4. To determine resistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to find its figure of merit.

5. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into a  voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same.

OR

To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into an  ammeter of desired range and to verify the same.

6. To find the frequency of AC mains with a sonometer.

### Activities assigned for Term I

1. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core. 2. To measure resistance, voltage (AC/DC), current (AC) and check continuity of a given  circuit using multimeter.

3. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three (on/off) switches, a fuse  and a power source.

4. To assemble the components of a given electrical circuit.

5. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current. 6. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery,  resistor/rheostat, key, ammeter and voltmeter. Mark the components that are not  connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram.

Class XII Syllabus assigned for Term II (Theory)

Time: 2 Hours                                                                                                      Max Marks: 35

 No of Periods Marks Unit–V Electromagnetic Waves 02 17 Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves Unit–VI Optics 18 Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments Chapter–10: Wave Optics Unit–VII Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter 07 11 Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter Unit–VIII Atoms and Nuclei 11 Chapter–12: Atoms Chapter–13: Nuclei Unit–IX Electronic Devices 07 7 Chapter–14: Semiconductor -Electronics: Materials,  Devices and Simple Circuits Total 45 35

## Unit V: Electromagnetic waves (2 Periods)

### Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves

Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their Transverse nature (qualitative ideas only).

Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma  rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

## Unit VI: Optics (18Periods)

### Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

Ray Optics: Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibers, refraction  at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula, magnification, power of a lens,  combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction of light through a prism.

Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their  magnifying powers.

### Chapter–10: Wave Optics

Wave optics: Wave front and Huygen’s principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane  surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle.  Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and

sustained interference of light, diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum

## Unit VII: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter (7 Periods)

### Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s  photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.

Experimental study of photoelectric effect

Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation

## Unit VIII: Atoms and Nuclei (11Periods)

### Chapter–12: Atoms

Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels,  hydrogen spectrum.

### Chapter–13:

Nuclei Composition and size of nucleus Nuclear force Mass-energy relation, mass  defect, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.

## Unit IX: Electronic Devices 7 Periods

### Chapter–14:

Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits Energy bands in  conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only) Semiconductor diode – I-V  characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; Special purpose p-n junction diodes:  LED, photodiode, solar cell.

## Syllabus assigned for Practical for Term II

Total Periods: 16

The second term practical examination will be organised by schools as per the directions of CBSE and  viva will be taken by both internal and external observers. The record to be submitted by the  students at the time of second term examination has to include a record of at least 4 Experiments  and 3 Activities to be demonstrated by teacher.

Evaluation Scheme

Time Allowed: one and half hours                                                                       Max. Marks: 15

 Two experiments to be performed by students at time of examination 8 marks Practical record [experiments and activities] 2 marks Viva on experiments, and activities 5 marks Total 15 marks

### Experiments assigned for Term-II

1. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v or between 1/u  and1/v.

2. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens.

OR

To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens.

3. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle  of incidence and angle of deviation.

4. To determine refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope. 5. To find refractive index of a liquid by using convex lens and plane mirror. 6. To draw the I-V characteristic curve for a p-n junction diode in forward bias and reverse bias.

### Activities assigned for Term-II

1. To identify a diode, an LED, a resistor and a capacitor from a mixed collection of such items.

2. Use of multimeter to see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED and  check whether a given electronic component (e.g., diode) is in working order.

3. To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an LDR.

4. To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab.

5. To observe polarization of light using two Polaroids.

6. To observe diffraction of light due to a thin slit.

7. To study the nature and size of the image formed by a (i) convex lens, (ii) concave mirror, on a  screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror).

8. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given  set of lenses.

Practical Examination for Visually Impaired Students of XII

Evaluation Scheme (Term I and Term II)

Time Allowed: one hour                                                                          Max. Marks:15

 Identification/Familiarity with the apparatus 3 marks Written test (based on given/prescribed practicals) 5 marks Practical Record 2 marks Viva 5 marks Total 15 marks

### General Guidelines

• The practical examination will be of one hour duration.
• A separate list of ten experiments is included here.
• The written examination in practicals for these students will be conducted at the time  of practical examination of all other students.
• The written test will be of 10 minutes duration.
• The question paper given to the students should be legibly typed. It should contain a  total of 8 practical skill based very short answer type questions. A student would be  required to answer any 5 questions.
• A writer may be allowed to such students as per CBSE examination rules.
• All questions included in the question papers should be related to the listed  practicals. Every question should require about two minutes to be answered.
• These students are also required to maintain a practical file. A student is expected to  record at least five of the listed experiments as per the specific instructions for each  subject. These practicals should be duly checked and signed by the internal examiner.
• The format of writing any experiment in the practical file should include aim,  apparatus required, simple theory, procedure, related practical skills, precautions etc.
• Questions may be generated jointly by the external/internal examiners and used for  assessment.
• The viva questions may include questions based on basic theory/principle/concept,  apparatus/ materials/chemicals required, procedure, precautions, sources of error

## Class XII

### A. Items for Identification/ familiarity with the apparatus for assessment in practicals  (All experiments)

Meter scale, general shape of the voltmeter/ammeter, battery/power supply, connecting  wires, standard resistances, connecting wires, voltmeter/ammeter, meter bridge, screw  gauge, jockey Galvanometer, Resistance Box, standard Resistance, connecting wires,  Potentiometer, jockey, Galvanometer, Lechlanche cell, Daniell cell [simple distinction  between the two vis-à-vis their outer (glass and copper) containers], rheostat connecting  wires, Galvanometer, resistance box, Plug-in and tapping keys, connecting wires  battery/power supply, Diode, Resistor (Wire-wound or carbon ones with two wires  connected to two ends), capacitors (one or two types), Inductors, Simple electric/electronic  bell, battery/power supply, Plug-in and tapping keys, Convex lens, concave lens, convex  mirror, concave mirror, Core/hollow wooden cylinder, insulated wire, ferromagnetic rod,  Transformer core, insulated wire.

### Experiments assigned for Term-I

1. To determine the resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph between voltage and current.

2. To verify the laws of combination (series/parallel combination) of resistances by Ohm’s law. 3. To find the resistance of a given wire / standard resistor using a meter bridge. 4. To compare the e.m.f of two given primary cells using a potentiometer. 5. To determine the resistance of a galvanometer by half deflection method.

### Experiments assigned for Term-II

1. To identify a resistor, capacitor, inductor and diode from a mixed collection of such items.

2. To observe the difference between

i. a convex lens and a concave lens

ii. a convex mirror and a concave mirror and to estimate the likely difference  between the power of two given convex /concave lenses.

3. To design an inductor coil and to know the effect of

i. change in the number of turns

ii. Introduction of ferromagnetic material as its core material on the inductance of  the coil.

4. To design a (i) step up (ii) step down transformer on a given core and know the relation  between its input and output voltages.

Note: The above practicals may be carried out in an experiential manner rather than  recording observations.

### Prescribed Books:

1.   Physics, Class XII, Part -I and II, Published by NCERT.
2.   Laboratory Manual of Physics for class XII Published by NCERT.
3. The list of other related books and manuals brought out by NCERT (consider multimedia also). ## NCERT Solutions For Physics Class 12

The CBSE course structure is designed in a manner to ensure that students do not go through a lot of pressure, moreover, books are made interactive and interesting for students to enjoy their studies. A lot of fun activities are included in between the chapters to help students learn in a playful way. It makes the process of conveying knowledge to the students efficient and healthy.

## Important Questions For Physics Class 12

The CBSE course structure is designed in a manner to ensure that students do not go through a lot of pressure, moreover, books are made interactive and interesting for students to enjoy their studies. A lot of fun activities are included in between the chapters to help students learn in a playful way. It makes the process of conveying knowledge to the students efficient and healthy. 