Biology Class 12 Syllabus
Chemistry Class 12 Syllabus
Physics Class 12 Syllabus
Mathematics Class 12 Syllabus
Reference Book
Biology Class 12 Syllabus
Exam Structure
Unit 
Title 
Marks 
VI 
Reproduction 
14 
VII 
Genetics and Evolution 
18 
VIII 
Biology and Human Welfare 
14 
IX 
Biotechnology and its Applications 
10 
X 
Ecology and Environment 
14 
Total 
70 

Unit VI. Reproduction
 Chapter1: Reproduction in Organisms
 Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Asexual reproduction Modes of reproductionAsexual and sexual reproduction; ModesBinary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
 Chapter2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
 Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollinationtypes, agencies and examples; Outbreedings devices; PollenPistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization eventsDevelopment of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modesapomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.
 Chapter3: Human Reproduction
 Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesisspermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).
 Chapter4: Reproductive Health
 Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control – Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies  IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).

Unit VII. Genetics and Evolution
 Chapter5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation
 Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from MendelismIncomplete dominance, Codominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination  in humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance  Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorder in humans  Thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter's syndromes.
 Chapter6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance
 Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation  Lac Operon; Genome and human ganeome project; DNA fingerprinting.
 Chapter7: Evolution
 Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (Paleontological, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin's contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution  Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy  Weinberg's principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.

Unit VIII. Biology and Human Welfare
 Chapter8: Human Health and Diseases
 Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology  vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDs; Adolescene, drug and alcholol abuse.
 Chapter9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
 Improvement in food production : Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification, Apiculature and Animal husbandry.
 Chapter10: Microbes in Human Welfare
 In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.

Unit IX. Biotechnology and Its Applications
 Chapter11: Biotechnology  Principles and Processes
 Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).
 Chapter12: Biotechnology and its Application
 Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organismsBt crops; Transgenic Animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.

Unit X. Ecology and Environment
 Chapter13: Organisms and Populations
 Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactionsmutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributesgrowth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
 Chapter14: Ecosystem
 Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession; ecological services  carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief).
 Chapter15: Biodiversity and its Conservation
 Concept of biodiversity; patterns of biodiversity; importance of biodiversity; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.
 Chapter16: Environmental Issues
 Air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control; agrochemicals and their effects; solid waste management; radioactive waste management; greenhouse effect and climate change; ozone layer depletion; deforestation; any one case study as success story addressing environmental issue(s).
Chemistry Class 12 Syllabus
Exam Structure
Unit 
Title 
Marks 
I 
Solid State 
23 
II 
Solutions 

III 
Electrochemistry 

IV 
Chemical Kinetics 

V 
Surface Chemistry 

VI 
Isolation of Elements 
19 
VII 
pBlock Elements 

VIII 
d and fBlock Elements 

IX 
Coordination Compounds 

X 
Haloalkanes and Haloarenes 
28 
XI 
Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers 

XII 
Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 

XIII 
Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen 

XIV 
Biomolecules 

XV 
Polymers 

XVI 
Chemistry in Everyday Life 

Total 
70 

Unit I: Solid State
 Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.
 Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n & p type semiconductors.

Unit II: Solutions
 Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties  relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult's law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, van't Hoff factor.

Unit III: Electrochemistry
 Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch's Law, electrolysis and law of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, Relation between Gibbs energy change and emf of a cell, fuel cells, corrosion.

Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics
 Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions), concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.

Unit V: Surface Chemistry
 Adsorption  physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis, homogenous and heterogenous activity and selectivity; enzyme catalysis colloidal state distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension; lyophilic , lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsion  types of emulsions.

Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
 Principles and methods of extraction  concentration, oxidation, reduction  electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.

Unit VII: p  Block Elements
 Group 15 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen preparation properties & uses ; compounds of nitrogen, preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (Structure only) ; Phosphorus  allotropic forms, compounds of phosphorus: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides PCl3 , PCl5 and oxoacids (elementary idea only).
 Group 16 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties,dioxygen: Preparation, Properties and uses, classification of oxides, Ozone, Sulphure allotropic forms; compounds of sulphure: Preparation properties and uses of sulphurdioxide, sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses; oxoacids of sulphur (Structures only).
 Group 17 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, Preparation properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
 Group 18 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.

Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements
 General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals  metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation, preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
 Lanthanoids  Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactvity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
 Actinoids  Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.

Unit IX: Coordination Compounds
 Coordination compounds  Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding, Werner's theory, VBT, and CFT; structure and stereo isomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative inclusion, extraction of metals and biological system).

Unit X : Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
 Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of CX bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions, optical rotation.
 Haloarenes: Nature of C X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only.
 Uses and environmental effects of  dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform freons, DDT.

Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
 Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties( of primary alcohols only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.
 Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
 Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.

Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
 Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophillic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes: uses.
 Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.

Unit XIII: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen
 Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
 Cyanides and Isocyanides  will be mentioned at relevant places in context.
 Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

Unit XIV: Biomolecules
 Carbohydrates  Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose), DL configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen) importance.
 Proteins  Elementary idea of α  amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins  primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones  Elementary idea excluding structure.
 Vitamins  Classification and functions.
 Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA.

Unit XV: Polymers
 Classification  natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization, some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon polyesters, bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and nonbiodegradable polymers.
 Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everyday life
 Chemicals in medicines  analgesics, tranquilizers antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
 Chemicals in food  preservations, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.
 Cleansing agents  soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
Physics Class 12 Syllabus
Exam Structure
Unit 
Chapter / Topic 
Marks 
I 
Electrostatics 

Chapter1: Electric Charges and Fields 

Chapter2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance 

II 
Current Electricity 

Chapter3: Current Electricity 

III 
Magnetic Effect of Current & Magnetism 

Chapter4: Moving Charges and Magnetism 

Chapter5: Magnetism and Matter 

IV 
Electromagnetic Induction & Alternating Current 

Chapter6: Electromagnetic Induction 

Chapter7: Alternating Current 

V 
Electromagnetic Waves 

Chapter8: Electromagnetic Waves 

VI 
Optics 

Chapter9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments 

Chapter10: Wave Optics 

VII 
Dual Nature of Matter 

Chapter11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter 

VIII 
Atoms & Nuclei 

Chapter12: Atoms 

Chapter13: Nuclei 

IX 
Electronic Devices 

Chapter14: Semiconductor Electronics 

X 
Communication Systems 

Chapter15: Communication Systems 

Total 
70 

Unit I: Electrostatics

Chapter1: Electric Charges and Fields
 Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s lawforce between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
 Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.
 Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).
 Chapter2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
 Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.
 Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.

Unit II: Current Electricity
 Chapter3: Current Electricity
 Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, VI characteristics (linear and nonlinear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.
 Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell,combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.
 Potentiometer  principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
 Chapter4: Moving Charges and Magnetism
 Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.
 Biot  Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.
 Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids, Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.
 Force on a currentcarrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel currentcarrying conductorsdefinition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometerits current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
 Chapter5: Magnetism and Matter
 Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.
 Para, dia and ferro  magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.

Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
 Chapter6: Electromagnetic Induction
 Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s laws, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents.
 Self and mutual induction.
 Chapter7: Alternating Current
 Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current.
 AC generator and transformer.

Unit V: Electromagnetic waves
 Chapter8: Electromagnetic Waves
 Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their transverse nature (qualitative ideas only).
 Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, Xrays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

Unit VI: Optics
 Chapter9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
 Ray Optics:: Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.
 Scattering of light  blue colour of sky and reddish apprearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.
 Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
 Chapter10: Wave Optics
 Wave optics: Wave front and Huygen's principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle. Interference Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarised light Brewster's law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.

Unit VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
 Chapter11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
 Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equationparticle nature of light.
 Matter waveswave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. DavissonGermer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).

Unit VIII: Atoms & Nuclei
 Chapter12: Atoms
 Alphaparticle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.
 Chapter13: Nuclei
 Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivityalpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law.
 Massenergy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.

Unit IX: Electronic Devices
 Chapter14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
 Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only)
 Semiconductor diode  IV characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier;
 Special purpose pn junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode and their characteristics, zener diode as a voltage regulator.
 Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor and transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration), basic idea of analog and digital signals, Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).

Unit X: Communication Systems
 Chapter15: Communication Systems
 Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation, satellite communication. Need for modulation, amplitude modulation.
Mathematics Class 12 Syllabus
Exam Structure
Unit 
Topic 
Marks 
I. 
Relations and Functions 
10 
II. 
Algebra 
13 
III. 
Calculus 
44 
IV. 
Vectors and 3D Geometry 
17 
V. 
Linear Programming 
06 
VI. 
Probability 
10 
Total 
100 

Unit I: Relations and Functions
 1. Relations and Functions
 Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one and onto functions, composite functions, inverse of a function. Binary operations.
 2. Inverse Trigonometric Functions
 Definition, range, domain, principal value branch. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions. Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions.

Unit II: Algebra
 1. Matrices
 Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero and identity matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. Operation on matrices: Addition and multiplication and multiplication with a scalar. Simple properties of addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication. Noncommutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence of nonzero matrices whose product is the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order 2).Concept of elementary row and column operations. Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists; (Here all matrices will have real entries).
 2. Determinants
 Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 x 3 matrices), properties of determinants, minors, cofactors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.

Unit III: Calculus
 1. Continuity and Differentiability
 Continuity and differentiability, derivative of composite functions, chain rule, derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit functions. Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions.
 Derivatives of logarithmic and exponential functions. Logarithmic differentiation, derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms. Second order derivatives. Rolle's and Lagrange's Mean Value Theorems (without proof) and their geometric interpretation.
 2. Applications of Derivatives
 Applications of derivatives: rate of change of bodies, increasing/decreasing functions, tangents and normals, use of derivatives in approximation, maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as reallife situations).
 3. Integrals
 Integration as inverse process of differentiation.Integration of a variety of functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts, Evaluation of simple integrals of the following types and problems based on them.
 Definite integrals as a limit of a sum, Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof). Basic propertiesof definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals.
 4. Applications of the Integrals
 Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, circles/parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only), Area between any of the two above said curves (the region should be clearly identifiable).
 5. Differential Equations
 Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation.Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given.Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables solutions of homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree. Solutions of linear differential equation of the type:
 dy/dx + py = q, where p and q are functions of x or constants.
 dx/dy + px = q, where p and q are functions of y or constants.

Unit IV: Vectors and ThreeDimensional Geometry
 1. Vectors
 Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector.Direction cosines and direction ratios of a vector. Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Definition, Geometrical Interpretation, properties and application of scalar (dot) product of vectors, vector (cross) product of vectors, scalar triple product of vectors.
 2. Three  dimensional Geometry
 Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line joining two points.Cartesian equation and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, shortest distance between two lines.Cartesian and vector equation of a plane.Angle between (i) two lines, (ii) two planes, (iii) a line and a plane.Distance of a point from a plane.

Unit V: Linear Programming
 1. Linear Programming
 Introduction, related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems, mathematical formulation of L.P. problems, graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions (bounded and unbounded), feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three nontrivial constraints).

Unit VI: Probability
 1. Probability
 Conditional probability, multiplication theorem on probability. independent events, total probability, Baye's theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution, mean and variance of random variable. Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution.
Best books for Class 12 CBSE
Reference Book
It is well known that NCERT books are the best and enough for CBSE Class 12 boards preparation. But then again, simply mugging the NCERT books few weeks and days is not going to suffice. You should be thorough with your NCERT books at least 6 months before your boards. This will give you ample time to consider using other reference books.
Listed below are the best books for Class 12 CBSE, subject wise:

Best books for Class 12 CBSE – Physics
 H C Verma is a musthave and the goto book for Class 12 Physics. Apart from it, S L Arora, Pradeep’s and Xam Idea are other great options. We would strongly recommend ‘Xam Idea’ as it contains plenty of conceptual questions, which are more frequently asked in CBSE Class 12 boards.

Best books for Class 12 CBSE – Chemistry
 Pradeep’s Chemistry is really helpful. You can also use O P Tandon as a good and dependable reference. However, do not neglect your NCERT book. Refer to these other books only when you have finished revising the NCERT book thoroughly.

Best books for Class 12 CBSE – Mathematics
 R S Aggarwal & M L Khanna are strongly recommended. For commerce students, Part 1 and 2 by R D Sharma has a great collection of problems. You could also refer to ULike papers as Mathematics is one of the most scoring subjects and you certainly don’t want to miss that opportunity.

Best books for Class 12 CBSE – Biology
 There’s S Chand Publishing by B P Pandey. ‘Pradeep’s – A Textbook for Biology’ is also something you can completely rely on.

Best books for Class 12 CBSE – English
 First of all, you will be required to read the lessons and be knowledgeable about the theme, characters and value points. NCERT textbooks for English: Flamingo and Vistas are enough for the literature section. You could also refer to ULike papers, previous year question papers and other sample papers during your preparation.

Best books for Class 12 CBSE – Economics
 For CBSE Class 12 boards, students mostly opt for textbooks published by NCERT as they are officially recommended by the board. However, to understand different subtopics, one must also refer to the following books:
 1. Introductory Macroeconomics by Sandeep Garg