This chapter covers topics like cell, its basic definition, various shapes present, gross structure and its three essential parts, finer structure and the organelles, microscopic examination of onion peel, also the most important topic, nucleus, and its importance and uses to the life of the cell, etc are few important concepts covered in this chapter followed with simple and small diagrams for better understanding.
The topics like chromosomes, their definition and discovery, structure, chromatin, the meaning of genes and where and why it is present, cell cycle explained with a diagram, cell division, and also the introduction of the concept of meiosis is also discussed in this chapter and explained in detail.
Here some of the important and need to know topics are covered in this chapter like the definition of genetics, heredity carriers, variations in population, different categories of chromosomes with the definition and functionalities, terms like genotype, phenotype, sex-linked inheritance, Mendel’s experiment on inheritance and its laws are well explained in this chapter in detail and a systematic manner.
This chapter exclusively talks about roots and their absorption process like absorption by the roots, its characteristics, conduction of water and minerals, root pressure, importance and functioning of root hairs, and the forces contributing to the ascent of sap are the concepts covered in this chapter which are well explained with a help of simple diagrams and small experiments for better understanding.
The concepts like transpiration, its demonstration, measurement, its importance, and different kinds and factors affecting transpiration are clearly explained in this chapter. Also, reduction of excessive transpiration, terms like guttation and bleeding are discussed here in detail with the help of pictorial representation for better understanding.
This is another interesting chapter and very important from an examination point of view. The topics like definitions and importance of photosynthesis, and its need to be carried out in plants, chlorophyll, explaining in detail about the two phases, i.e., dependent and independent phases, results of photosynthesis, and factors affecting it followed with a simple experiment of photosynthesis to show how all the above topics work in real life and making sure the students understood the concepts well. Also, the carbon cycle is explained in this chapter.
This chapter is a simple and small unit that covers topics like plant hormones, topic movements, and their functionalities, etc are explained in detail.
This chapter covers topics like need and properties of blood transport, its functions, blood transfusion and various blood groups, the types of blood circulation like pulmonary and systemic circulations, etc are the topics explained here in this chapter with the help of diagrams and pictorial representation for better understanding.
The topics like definition of excretion, the various excretory organs present in the body that are involved in the substance elimination, kidneys, osmoregulation, artificial kidney, constituents of urine, etc are the topics covered in this chapter along with labeled diagrams for better understanding and helps students to remember the concepts easily.
This is one of the important and priority chapters in terms of examination point of view. The topics like neurons, nerves, peripheral nervous system, reflexes, etc are the topics covered in this chapter followed by diagrams and pictorial representation for better understanding.
This is a very small and simple chapter where topics like eyes, defects, and measures to be taken to protect eyes, various parts of eyes are explained in detail with diagrams. Also, the ear and its functionality of hearing and balance are well discussed with the help of diagrams for better understanding.
This chapter explains various concepts like regulations of body activities, properties of hormones, control of hormonal secretions, and at a glance, endocrine glands, etc are clearly explained in detail in this chapter.
The topics like reproduction in humans, menstrual cycle, fertilization, implantation, placenta, parturition, etc are covered and well discussed in this chapter followed by taking examples and diagrams for better understanding.
This chapter is the smallest of all chapters in the syllabus. The only topics covered in this chapter are evolution, its definition, theories, human evolution in specific followed by detailed pictorial representation for better and thorough understanding.
This is another important and general chapter that covers topics like rapid rise in population, population explosion, factors responsible for growth and urbanization, steps to be taken to reduce population on a general basis, population education and its control, etc are the different topics discussed in detail followed with statistics showing the variations in population for better understanding.
This is another simple yet important general chapter explaining the various topics like air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, radiation, noise pollution, and factors and effects causing these pollutants and precautions to be taken in its reduction are clearly explained in this chapter.