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ICSE 10 Biology Syllabus CLASS X

ICSE 10 Chemistry Syllabus CLASS X

ICSE 10 Maths Syllabus CLASS X

ICSE 10 Physics Syllabus CLASS X

ICSE 10 Biology Syllabus CLASS X Stroke 396

There will be one paper of two hours duration of 80 marks and Internal Assessment of practical work carrying 20 marks.

The paper will be divided into two sections, Section I (40 marks) and Section II (40 marks).

Section I (compulsory) will contain short answer questions on the entire syllabus.

Section II will contain six questions. Candidates will be required to answer any four of these six questions.

  • 1. Basic Biology
    • (i) Cell Cycle and Cell Division:
      Cell cycle – Interphase (G1, S, G2) and M.phase Cell Division: Mitosis and its stages. A basic understanding of Meiosis as a reduction division (stages not required). Significance and major differences between mitotic and meiotic division.
    • (ii) Structure of chromosome:
      Basic structure of chromosome with elementary understanding of terms such as chromatin, chromatid, gene structure of DNA and centromere.
    • (iii) Genetics: Mendel•s laws of inheritance and sex linked inheritance of diseases.
      Monohybrid cross, dihybrid cross. The following terms to be covered: gene, allele,
      heterozygous, homozygous, dominant, recessive, mutation, variation, phenotype, genotype. Sex determination in human beings.
      Sex linked inheritance of diseases to include haemophilia and colour blindness (only criss cross inheritance).
  • 2. Plant Physiology
    • (i) Absorption by roots, imbibition; diffusion and osmosis; osmotic pressure, root pressure; turgidity and flaccidity; plasmolysis and deplasmolysis,; the absorption of water and minerals, active and passive transport (in brief) ; the importance of root hair.
      Characteristics of roots, which make them suitable for absorbing water, should be discussed with the process of absorption.
      Structure of a single full-grown root hair should be explained.
    • (ii) The rise of water up to the xylem; a general idea of Cohesive, Adhesive forces and transpirational pull); demonstrated by the use of dyes.
      Experiments to show the conduction of water through the xylem should be discussed. Mention of the causative forces must be made for better understanding but as per the syllabus.
      Transpiration, process and significance; experimental work includes the loss in weight of a potted plant or a leafy shoot in a test tube, the use of cobalt chloride paper. Ganong•s potometer and its limitations. The effect of external conditions on the rate of water loss should be stressed.
      Mechanism of stomatal transpiration must be explained so that concept of the process is clear. Adaptations in plants to reduce transpiration to be discussed. A brief idea of guttation and bleeding should be given.
    • (iii) Photosynthesis: the nature of the process itself and the great importance of photosynthesis to life in general; experiments to show the necessity of light, carbon dioxide & chlorophyll and also the formation of starch and the output of oxygen; carbon cycle.
    • The internal structure of chloroplast should be explained to give an idea of the site of light and dark reaction. Opening and closing of stomata should be explained. Teachers should stress upon the importance of a correct balanced chemical equation. The terms "photochemical" for light phase and "biosynthetic" for dark phase must be introduced. In the light reaction, activation of chlorophyll molecule followed by photolysis of water, release of O2, formation of ATP and NADPH should be taught. In the dark reaction (detailed equations are not required), only combination of hydrogen released by NADP with CO2 to form glucose to be discussed. Adaptations in a plant for photosynthesis and experiments with regard to the factors essential for the process should be discussed.
  • 3. Human Anatomy and Physiology
    • (i) Circulatory System: Main features; the structure and working of the heart, blood vessels, structure and functions of blood and circulation of blood (only names of the main blood vessels entering and leaving the heart, liver and kidney will be required).
      Composition of blood (Structure and functions of RBC, WBC and platelets). Brief idea of tissue fluid and lymph. Increase in efficiency of mammalian red blood cells due to absence of certain organelles should be explained with reasons. A brief idea of blood coagulation. Structure of vein, artery and capillary should be explained with the help of diagrams to bring out clearly the relationship between their structure and function. ABO blood group system, Rh factor; concept of double circulation; concept systole and diastole; blood pressure. Reference to portal system should be made. Working of the heart along with names of the main blood vessels entering and leaving the heart, the liver and the kidney must be taught. Examination of a blood smear under a microscope.
    • (ii) Excretory System: Elementary treatment of the structure and function of the kidneys; the kidneys treated as comprising cortex and medulla and consisting of a branched system of tubules well supplied with blood vessels leading to the ureter (details of the courses of the tubules and their blood vessels not required).
      External and internal structure of the kidney; parts of the excretory system along with the blood vessels entering and leaving it should be taught with the help of charts or models. Students should be able to draw the diagrams with correct labelling and know the functions of various parts. A general idea of the structure of a kidney tubule nephron should be given. A brief idea of ultra-filtration, selective reabsorption and tubular secretion in relation to the composition of blood plasma and urine formed.
    • (iii) Nervous system: Structure of Neuron; central, autonomous and peripheral nervous system (in brief); brain and spinal cord; reflex action and how it differs from voluntary reflex.
      Sense organs – Eye and ear; Eye defects and corrective measures (myopia, hypermetropia, presbiopia, astigmatism and cataract).
      Various parts of the external structure of the brain and its parts (Medulla Oblongata, Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Thalamus, Hypothalamus) and their functions; reference should be made to the distribution of white and gray matter internally. Diagrammatic explanation of the reflex arc, showing the pathway from receptor to effector, differences between natural and acquired reflex should be taught. Structure and function of the Eye and Ear and their various parts. The external and V.S. of the eye must be taught with a brief idea of stereoscopic vision. The course of perception of sound in human ear. Role of ear in maintaining balance.
    • (iv) Endocrine System: General study of the following glands: Adrenal, Pancreas, Thyroid and Pituitary. Difference in Endocrine and Exocrine glands.
      Correct location and shape of the gland in the human body should be discussed along with the hormones they secrete (Pancreas: insulin and glucagon to be taught; Thyroid: only thyroxin to be taught). Effects of hypo secretion and hyper secretion of hormones must be discussed. The term tropic hormones should be explained in the study of pituitary. Brief idea of feedback mechanism must be given.
    • (v) The Reproductive System: Organs, fertilisation and a general outline of nutrition and respiration of the embryo. Menstrual cycle, outline of menstrual cycle.
      Functions of organs and accessory glands must be discussed. An idea of secondary sexual characters, structure and functions of the various parts of the sperm and an egg. Fertilization, implantation, placenta, foetal membranes,gestationandparturition
      identical and fraternal twins to be explained briefly.
    • (vi) Population: Problems posed by the increase in population in India; need for adopting control measures - population control.
      Main reasons for the sharp rise in human population in India and in the world. The terms demography, population density, birth rate, death rate and growth rate of population should be explained. With population growth, increased consumption and urbanization, there is a need to keep a check on demands of urban areas over rural areas, of exploitative use of resources rather than sustainable use. Methods of population control to be taught.
  • 4. Physical Health and Hygiene
    • (i) Aids to health: an understanding of the use and action of the following - vaccination; immunisation; antitoxin; serum; antiseptics; disinfectants; penicillin; sulphonamide drugs; First Aid.
      An idea of local defense system and their merits, active and passive immunity, difference between antiseptics and disinfectants to be discussed. Basic principles of first aid to be taught.
    • (ii) Health organisations: Red Cross, WHO; common health problems in India.
      Major activities of Red Cross and WHO should be discussed. Common health problems in India.
  • 5. Pollution
    • (i) Types of pollution - air, water, (fresh and marine) soil, radiation and noise. Self-explanatory.
    • (ii) Sources of pollution and major pollutant:
      Air: Vehicular, industrial, burning garbage, brick kilns.
      Water: Household detergents, sewage, industrial waste, oil spills, thermal pollution.
      Soil: Industrial waste, urban commercial and domestic waste, chemical fertilizers, biomedical waste, like needles, syringes, soiled dressings etc, biodegradable waste, like paper, vegetable peels, etc; Non-biodegradable waste like
      plastics, glass, Styrofoam etc.; Pesticides like DDT etc.
      Radiation: X-rays; radioactive fallout from nuclear plants.
    • (iii) Effects of pollution on climate, environment, human health and other organisms and its abatement.
      Greenhouse effect and global warming, Acid rain, Ozone layer depletion.
      Meaning of the terms, causes, effect on life on earth, idea about setting standards - Euro/Bharat stage vehicular standards.

INTERNAL ASSESSMENT OF PRACTICAL WORK

The practical work will be designed to test the ability of the candidates to make accurate observation from specimens of plants and animals. For this, the candidates should be familiar with the use of a hand lens of not less than x6 magnification. Candidates should be trained to make simple and accurate drawings and brief notes as a means of recording their observations.

The practical examiners will assume that candidates would have carried out the practical work outlined below.


PLANT LIFE

  • (i) Observation of permanent slides of mitosis. Self-explanatory.
  • (ii) Experiments indicating osmosis, diffusion and absorption.
    The teacher should give a demonstration and then the students should perform the experiments in order to have a better understanding of the processes.
  • (iii) Physiological experiments on transpiration to be set up by the teacher and the pupils to identify the products, draw and label the apparatus.
    The teacher should set up the experiment stepwise so that the student gets a clear idea of the aim, apparatus, procedure and result of the experiment. For transpiration experiments the CoCl2 paper should be kept in a dessicator and its importance should be explained. Limitations for the use of Ganong‚s potometer should be given.
  • (iv) Experiments to show the necessity of light, carbon
    dioxideandchlorophyllessential for photosynthesis; release of O2 during photosynthesis. Candidates to write down their observations and draw and label the apparatus.
    Importance of destarching the plant before the experiment should be discussed. Diagrams should be drawn with the correct labelling. Pupils should be able to analyse the result.

ANIMAL LIFE

  • (i) Identification of the structure of the urinary system, heart (internal structure) and brain (external view) through models and charts
  • (ii) The identification of different types of blood cells under a microscope.
    Different types of WBCs should be observed. Teacher should point out the differences between red blood cells and white blood cells. Ratio of red blood cells to white blood cells should be discussed.
  • (iii) The structure of the Ear and an Eye (candidates will be required to identify each structure in the models of these organs).
    Models should be shown and students should draw correct labelled diagrams.
  • (iv) Identification and location of selected endocrine glands (Adrenal, Pancreas, Thyroid and Pituitary glands) with the help of a model or chart. Correct labelled diagram to be drawn.
  • (v) Compiling material for a First Aid box. Self-explanatory.
    EVALUATION
    The practical work/project work are to be evaluated by the subject teacher and by an External Examiner. (The External Examiner may be a teacher nominated by the Head of the school, who could be from the faculty,
    but not teaching the subject in the relevant section/class. For example, a teacher of Biology of Class VIII may be deputed to be an External Examiner for Class X, Biology projects.)
    The Internal Examiner and the External Examiner will assess the practical work/project work independently.
    Award of marks (20 Marks)
    Subject Teacher (Internal Examiner) 10 marks
    External Examiner 10 marks
    The total marks obtained out of 20 are to be sent to the Council by the Head of the school.
    The Head of the school will be responsible for the entry of marks on the mark sheets provided by the Council.

ICSE 10 Chemistry Syllabus CLASS X Stroke 396

There will be one paper of TWO HOURS duration of 80 marks and Internal Assessment of practical work carrying 20 marks.

The paper will be divided into TWO sections, Section I (40 marks) and Section II (40 marks).

SECTION I (compulsory) will contain short answer questions on the entire syllabus.

SECTION II will contain six questions. Candidates will be required to answer any FOUR of these SIX questions.

NOTE: All chemical process/reactions should be studied with reference to the reactants, products, conditions, observation, the (balanced) equation and diagram.

  • 1. Periodic Properties and variations of Properties – Physical and Chemical.
    • (i) Periodic properties and their variations in groups and periods.
      Definitions of following periodic properties and trends in these properties in groups and periods should be studied:
      • atomic size,
      • metallic character
      • non-metallic character
      • ionisation potential
      • electron affinity
      • electronegativity
    • (ii) Periodicity on the basis of atomic number for elements.
      Relation between atomic number for light elements (proton number) and atomic mass for light elements; the modern periodic table up to period 3 (students to be exposed to the complete modern periodic table but no questions will be asked on elements beyond period 3 – Argon); periodicity and other related properties to be described in terms of shells (not orbitals); special reference to the alkali metals and halogen groups.
  • 2. Chemical Bonding
    Electrovalent, covalent and co-ordinate bonding, structures of various compounds – orbit structure and electron dot structure.
    Definition of Electrovalent Bond.
    Structure of Electrovalent compounds NaCl, MgCl2, CaO;
    Characteristic properties of electrovalent compounds – state of existence, melting and boiling points, conductivity (heat and electricity), ionisation in solution, dissociation in solution and in molten state to be linked with electrolysis.
    Covalent Bond – definition and examples, structure of Covalent molecules on the basis of duplet and octet of electrons (example : hydrogen, chlorine, nitrogen, water, ammonia, carbon tetrachloride, methane.)
    Characteristic properties of Covalent compounds – state of existence, melting and boiling points, conductivity (heat and electricity), ionisation in solution.
    Comparison of Electrovalent and Covalent compounds.
    Definition of Coordinate Bond: The lone pair effect of the oxygen atom of the water molecule and the nitrogen atom of the ammonia molecule to explain the formation of H3O+ and OH- ions in water and NH4+ ion. The meaning of lone pair; the formation of hydronium ion and ammonium ion must be explained with help of electron dot diagrams.
  • 3. Study of Acids, Bases and Salts
    • (i) Simple definitions in terms of the molecules and their characteristic properties. Self-explanatory.
    • (ii) Ions present in mineral acids, alkalis and salts and their solutions; use of litmus and pH paper to test for acidity and alkalinity.
      Examples with equation for the ionisation/dissociation of ions of acids, bases and salts: acids form hydronium ions (only positive ions) which turn blue litmus red, alkalis form hydroxyl ions (only negative ions) with water which turns red litmus blue. Salts are formed by partial or complete replacement of the hydrogen ion of an acid by a metal should be explained with suitable examples. Introduction to pH scale to test for acidity, neutrality and alkalinity by using pH paper or Universal indicator.
    • (iii) Definition of salt; types of salts.
      Types of salts: normal salts, acid salt, basic salt, definition and examples.
    • (iv) General properties of salts:
      • Deliquescence, efflorescence, water of crystallization. Definition and example of each of the above.
      • Decomposition of hydrogen carbonates, carbonates, chlorides and nitrates by appropriate acids with heating if necessary. (relevant laboratory work must be done).
      • Action of dilute acids on carbonates, hydrogen carbonates and action of concentrated acid. Equations of formation of Acid rain. (Sulphuric acid) on chlorides and nitrates, to obtain carbon dioxide, hydrogen chloride and nitric acid, respectively should be taught. This will assist the students in their practical work.
    • (v) Preparation: laboratory preparation of salts (normal and acid salts) – relevant laboratory work is essential (no apparatus details are required).
      Laboratory preparation of salts (normal and acidsalts):Directcombination; decomposition; displacement; double decomposition; neutralization.
  • 4. Analytical Chemistry – Use of Ammonium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydroxide
    • (i) On solution of salts: colour of salt and its solution; formation and colour of hydroxide precipitated for solutions of salts of Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb; special action of ammonium hydroxide on solutions of copper salt and sodium hydroxide on ammonium salts. On solution of salts:
      • Colour of salt and its solution.
      • Action on addition of Sodium Hydroxide to solution of Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb salts drop by drop in excess. Formation and colour of hydroxide precipitated to be highlighted. with the help of equations.
      • Action on addition of Ammonium Hydroxide to solution of Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb salts drop by drop in excess. Formation and colour of hydroxide precipitated to be highlighted with the help of equations.
      • Special action of Ammonium Hydroxide on solutions of copper salts and sodium hydroxide on ammonium salts.
    • (ii) On certain metals and their oxides (relevant laboratory work is essential).
      The metals must include zinc and aluminium, their oxides and their hydroxides, which react with caustic alkalis (NaOH, KOH), showing the amphoteric nature of these substances.
  • 5. Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
    • (i) Gay Lussac€s Law of Combining Volumes;
      Avogadro€s Law. Idea of mole – a number just as dozen, a gross; Avogadro€s Law - statement and explanation; Gay Lussac€s Law of Combining Volumes. – statement and explanation, “the mass of 22.4 litres of any gas at S.T.P. is equal to its molar mass”.
      (Questions will not be set on formal proof but may be taught for clear understanding) – simple calculations based on the molar volume.
    • (ii) Refer to the atomicity of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and chlorine (proof not required).
      The explanation can be given using equations for the formation of HCl, NH3, and NO.
    • (iii) Relative atomic masses (atomic weight) and relative molecular masses (molecular weights): either H=1 or 12C=12 will be accepted; molecular mass = 2×vapour density (formal proof not required). Deduction of simple (empirical) and molecular formula from the percentage composition of a compound; the molar volume of a gas at S.T.P.; simple calculations based on chemical equations; both reacting weight and volumes.
      Idea of relative atomic mass and relative molecular mass – standard H atom or 1/12th of carbon 12 atom. Relating mole and atomic mass; arriving at gram atomic mass and then gram atom; atomic mass is a number dealing with one atom; gram atomic mass is the mass of one mole of atoms.
      Relating mole and molecular mass arriving at gram molecular mass and gram molecule – molecular mass is a number dealing with a molecule, gram molecular mass is the mass of one mole of molecules.
      Molecular mass = 2×vapour density (questions will not be set on formal proof but may be taught for clear understanding); - simple calculations based on the formula.
      Deduction of simple (empirical) and molecular formula from the percentage composition of a compound.
  • 6. Electrolysis
    • (i) Electrolytes and non-electrolytes. Definitions and examples.
    • (ii) Substances containing molecules only, ions only, both molecules and ions.
      Substances containing molecules only, ions only, both molecules and ions. Examples; relating their composition with their behaviour as electrolyte (strong and weak), non-electrolyte.
      Definition and explanation of electrolysis, electrolyte, electrode, anode, cathode, anion, cation, oxidation and reduction (on the basis of loss and gain of electrons).
    • (iii)An elementary study of the migration of ions, with reference to the factors influencing selective discharge of ions, illustrated by the electrolysis of: molten lead bromide; acidified water with platinum electrodes and aqueous copper (II) sulphate with copper electrodes; electron transfer at the electrodes.
      The above electrolytic processes can be studied in terms of electrolyte used, electrodes used, ionization reaction, anode reaction, cathode reaction, use of selective discharge theory wherever applicable.
    • (iv) Applications of electrolysis: electroplating with nickel and silver; purification of copper; choice of electrolyte for electroplating.
      Reasons and conditions for electroplating;; names of the electrolytes and the electrodes used should be given. Equations for the reactions at the electrodes should be given for electroplating, refining of copper.
    • (v) Acids, bases and salts as electrolytes: reference should be made to the activity series as indicating the tendency of metals, e.g. Na, Mg, Fe, Cu, to form ions.
  • 7. Metallurgy
    • (i) Definition of Metals and Non-metals. Self-explanatory.
    • (ii) Position of the metals (alkali metals and alkaline earth metals) in the Periodic table and general characteristics applied to these elements with reference to the following – occurrence, nature, bonding, action of air, action of water, action of acids. Self-explanatory.
    • (iii) Comparison of Metals and Non-metals.
    • General properties with special reference to physical properties: state, lustre, melting point,density,ductility,malleability, brittleness, conduction of electricity (exceptions to be specifically noted - e.g. graphite, mercury); chemical properties: a metal forms at least one basic oxide; non-metal, an acidic or neutral oxide; discharge of metallic ions at the cathode from fused metallic chlorides (link with bonding and ion formation); many metals liberate hydrogen from dilute HCl and H2SO4.In the physical properties of metals and non-metals, atomicity and valence electrons should also be included; suitable examples must be given for basic, acidic and neutral oxides; formation and discharge of ions at the cathode (metallic) and anode (non-metallic) should be explained with examples.
    • (iv) Reduction of metallic oxides; some can be reduced by hydrogen, carbon and carbon monoxide (e.g. copper oxide, lead oxide, iron (II) oxide) and some cannot (e.g. Al2O3, MgO) - refer to activity series). Equations with conditions and observations should be given.
    • (v) Extraction of metals based on the activity series. Extraction of metals: principle of extraction of metal from its compounds by reduction – carbon reduction, electrolytic reduction. Active metals by electrolysis e.g. sodium, aluminium (reference only).
    • (vi) Corrosion of iron and its prevention. Experiment to illustrate that moisture and oxygen in air are responsible for the corrosion. Reaction of corrosion. Prevention by painting and galvanization.
    • (vii) Metals and their alloys: common ores of iron, aluminium and zinc. Extraction of Aluminium. Metals and their alloys: Occurrence of metals in nature - mineral and ore. Common ores of iron, aluminium and zinc. Dressing of the ore – hydrolytic method, magnetic separation, froth flotation method, chemical method by using chemical - NaOH for purifying bauxite – Baeyer€s Process.
      Extraction of Aluminium: the constituents in the charge, method of electrolytic extraction (flow chart to be used); structure of electrolytic cell and reason for using cryolite, electrolyte, electrodes,, electrode reaction.Description of the changes occurring, purpose of the substances used and the main reactions with their equations.
      • (a) Uses of iron, aluminium and zinc and their alloys. Uses of iron, aluminium and zinc and their alloys. Composition of their alloys – steel, duralumin, brass.
      • (b) Other important alloys – bronze, fuse metal and solder. Uses only.
  • 8. Study of Compounds
    Hydrogen Chloride
    Hydrogen chloride: preparation of hydrogen chloride from sodium chloride; refer to the density and solubility of hydrogen chloride (fountain experiment); reaction with ammonia; acidic properties of its solution.
    Preparation of hydrogen chloride from sodium chloride; (the laboratory method of preparation can be learnt in terms of reactants, product, condition, equation, diagram or setting of the apparatus, procedure, observation, precaution, collection of the gas and identification). Simple experiment to show the density of the gas (Hydrogen Chloride) –heavier than air.
    Solubility of hydrogen chloride (fountain experiment); (setting of the apparatus, procedure, observation, inference) – method of preparation of hydrochloric acid by dissolving the gas in water- the special arrangement and the mechanism by which the back suction is avoided should be learnt. Reaction with ammonia Acidic properties of its solution - (reaction with metals, their oxides, hydroxides and carbonates to give their chlorides; decomposition of carbonates, hydrogen carbonates, sulphides, sulphites, thiosulphates and nitrates).
    • AMMONIA
      (i) Ammonia: its laboratory preparation from ammonium chloride and collection; ammonia from nitrides like Mg3N2 and AlN and ammonium salts. Manufacture by Haber€s Process; density and solubility of ammonia (fountain experiment); aqueous solution of ammonia; its reactions with hydrogen chloride and with hot copper (II) oxide and chlorine; the burning of ammonia in oxygen; uses of ammonia.
      Laboratory preparation from ammonium chloride and collection (the preparation can be studied in terms of, setting of the apparatus and diagram, procedure, observation, collection and identification).
      Manufacture of ammonia on a large scale - reference should be made to Haber Process for the manufacture of ammonia.
      Ammonia from nitrides like Mg3N2 and AlN and ammonium salts; the reactions can be studied in terms of reactant, product, condition, equation.
      Density and solubility of ammonia (fountain experiment); the property can be learnt in terms of setting of the apparatus, procedure and observation and inference.
      Aqueous solution of ammonia - reaction with sulphuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and solutions of iron(III) chloride, iron(II) sulphate, lead nitrate, zinc nitrate and copper sulphate.
      Its reaction with: hydrogen chloride, hot copper (II) oxide, with chlorine in excess and ammonia in excess, burning of ammonia in oxygen; all these reactions may be studied in terms of reactants, products, condition, equation and observation; reference should be made to preparation of nitrogen from air and from ammonium nitrite.
      Uses of ammonia - manufacture of fertilizers, explosives, nitric acid, refrigerant gas (Chlorofluro carbon – and its suitable alternatives which are non-ozone depleting), cleansing agents, source of hydrogen.
    • (ii) The catalytic oxidation of ammonia, as the source of nitric acid; (refer to Ostwald process) simple diagram for a catalytic oxidation of ammonia in the laboratory (with conditions and reactions only). Self-explanatory.
      Nitric Acid Nitric Acid: one laboratory method of preparation of nitric acid from potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate. Nitric acid as an oxidizing agent. Nitric Acid: Laboratory method of preparation of nitric acid from potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate; the laboratory method can be studied in terms of reactant, product, condition, equation, setting, diagram, precaution, collection, identification. As an oxidising agent: its reaction with copper, carbon, sulphur.
      Sulphuric Acid
      Sulphuric Acid: its behaviour as an acid when dilute, as an oxidizing agent when concentrated - oxidation of carbon and sulphur; as a dehydrating agent - dehydration of sugar and copper (II) sulphate crystals; its non-volatile nature. hydroxide,metalcarbonate,metal bicarbonate, metal sulphite, metal sulphide. Concentrated sulphuric acid as an oxidizing agent - the oxidation of carbon and sulphur. Concentrated sulphuric acid as a dehydrating agent- (a) the dehydration of sugar (b) Copper(II) sulphate crystals. Non-volatile nature of sulphuric acid - reaction with sodium or potassium chloride and sodium or potassium nitrate.
  • 8. Organic Chemistry
    • (i) Introduction to Organic compounds.
      Unique nature of Carbon atom – tetra valency, catenation, formation of single, double and triple bonds, straight chain, branched chain and cyclic compounds.
    • (ii) Structure and Isomerism.
      Structure of compounds with single, double and triple bonds; Isomerism – structural (chain, position)
    • (iii) Homologous series – characteristics with examples.
      Alkane, alkene, alkyne series and their gradation in properties and the relationship with the molecular mass or molecular formula.
    • (iv) Simple nomenclature.
      Simple nomenclature - of the hydrocarbons with simple functional groups – (double bond, triple bond, alcoholic, ether, aldehydic, keto, carboxylic group) longest chain rule and smallest number for functional groups rule – trivial and IUPAC names.
    • (v) Hydrocarbons: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes.
      Alkanes - general formula; methane (greenhouse gas) and ethane - methods of preparation from sodium ethanoate (sodium acetate), sodium propanoate (sodium propionate), from iodomethane (methyl iodide) and bromoethane (ethyl bromide). Oxidation of methane and ethane in presence of oxygen under suitable conditions, reaction of methane and ethane with chlorine through substitution.
      Alkenes – (unsaturated hydrocarbons with a double bond); ethene as an example. Methods of preparation of ethene by dehydro halogenation reaction and dehydration reactions.
      Alkynes -(unsaturated hydrocarbons with a triple bond); ethyne as an example of alkyne; Methods of preparation from calcium carbide and 1,2 dibromoethane ethylene dibromide). Only main properties, particularly addition products with hydrogen and halogen namely Cl, Br and I; structural formulae of hydrocarbons. Structural formula must be given for: alkanes (up to butane), alkene (C2H4); alkynes (C2H2). Uses of methane, ethane, ethene, acetylene.
    • (vi) Alcohols: ethanol – preparation, properties and uses.
      Preparation of ethanol: hydration of ethene; by hydrolysis of alkyl halide; Properties – Physical: Nature, Solubility, Density, Boiling Points. Chemical: Combustion, Oxidation with acidified Potassium dichromate, action with sodium, ester formation with acetic acid, dehydration with conc. Sulphuric acid with reference to Ethanol. Denatured alcohol: Important uses of Ethanol.
    • (vii) Carboxylic acids (aliphatic - mono carboxylic acid): Acetic acid – preparation, properties and uses of acetic acid. Preparation of acetic acid from Ethyl alcohol. Properties of Acetic Acid: Physical properties – odour (vinegar), glacial acetic acid (effect of sufficient cooling to produce ice like crystals). Chemical properties – action with litmus, alkalis and alcohol (idea of esterification). Uses of acetic acid.

    INTERNAL ASSESSMENT OF PRACTICAL WORK

    Candidates will be asked to observe the effect of reagents and/or of heat on substances supplied to them. The exercises will be simple and may include the recognition and identification of certain gases and ions listed below. The examiners will not, however, be restricted in their choice to substances containing the listed ions.


    Gases: Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride, Sulphur dioxide, Hydrogen sulphide, Ammonia, Water vapour, Nitrogen dioxide. Ions: Calcium, Copper, Iron, Lead, Zinc and Ammonium, Carbonate, Chloride, Nitrate, Sulphide,

    Sulphite and Sulphate.

    Knowledge of a formal scheme of analysis is not required. Semi-micro techniques are acceptable but candidates using such techniques may need to adapt the instructions given to suit the size of the apparatus being used. Candidates are expected to have completed the following minimum practical work:

    • 1. Make a solution of the unknown substance: add sodium hydroxide solution or ammonium hydroxide solution, make observations and give your deduction. Warming the mixture may be needed. Choose from substances containing Ca2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Pb2+, Zn2+, NH4+.
    • 2. Supply a solution of a dilute acid and alkali. Determine which is acidic and which is basic, giving two tests for each.
    • 3. Add concentrated hydrochloric acid to each of the given substances, warm, make observations, identify any product and make deductions:
      (a) copper oxide
      (b) manganese dioxide.
    • 4. Use of pH in soil analysis, water analysis, medical field – simple identification with universal indicator.
      EVALUATION
      The assignments/project work are to be evaluated by the subject teacher and by an External Examiner. (The External Examiner may be a teacher nominated by the Head of the school, who could be from the faculty, but not teaching the subject in the section/class. For example, a teacher of Chemistry of Class VIII may be deputed to be an External Examiner for Class X Chemistry projects.)
      The Internal Examiner and the External Examiner will assess the assignments independently.
      Award of marks (20 Marks)
      Subject Teacher (Internal Examiner) 10 marks
      External Examiner 10 marks
      The total marks obtained out of 20 are to be sent to the Council by the Head of the school.
      The Head of the school will be responsible for the entry of marks on the mark sheets provided by the Council.
      NOTE: According to the recommendation of International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the groups are numbered from 1 to 18 replacing the older notation of groups IA ….. VIIA, VIII, IB …… VIIB and 0. However, for the examination both notations will be accepted.
    Old notation IA IIA IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB VIII VIII VIII IB IIB IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 0
    New notation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

    ICSE 10 Maths Syllabus CLASS X Stroke 396

    • 1. To acquire knowledge and understanding of the terms, symbols, concepts, principles, processes, proofs, etc. of mathematics.
    • 2. To develop an understanding of mathematical concepts and their application to further studies in mathematics and science.
    • 3. To develop skills to apply mathematical knowledge to solve real life problems.
    • 4. To develop the necessary skills to work with modern technological devices such as calculators and computers in real life situations.
    • 5. To develop drawing skills, skills of reading tables, charts and graphs.
    • 6. To develop an interest in mathematics.
    • Note: Unless otherwise specified, only S. I. Units are to be used while teaching and learning, as well as for answering questions.

      There will be one paper of two and a half hours duration carrying 80 marks and Internal Assessment of 20 marks.

      The paper will be divided into two sections, Section I (40 marks), Section II (40 marks).

      Section I: will consist of compulsory short answer questions.

      Section II: Candidates will be required to answer four out of seven questions.

      The solution of a question may require the knowledge of more than one branch of the syllabus.

      • 1. Pure Arithmetic
        Rational and Irrational Numbers
        Rational, irrational numbers as real numbers,
        their place in the number system. Surds and rationalization of surds. Simplifying an expression by rationalizing the denominator.
      • 2. Commercial Mathematics Compound Interest
        • (a) Compound interest as a repeated Simple Interest computation with a growing Principal. Use of this in computing Amount over a period of 2 or 3 years.
        • (b) Use of formula A= P (1 + r/100 )n. Finding CI
          from the relation CI = A – P.
          • Interest compounded half-yearly included.
          • Using the formula to find one quantity given different combinations of A, P, r, n, CI and SI; difference between CI and SI type included.
          × = ÷ = = etc. Use of laws of exponents. (v) Logarithms (a) Logarithmic form vis-à-vis exponential form: interchanging.
          (b) Laws of Logarithms and their uses. Expansion of expression with the help of laws of logarithms eg. y =
        • Rate of growth and depreciation.
        • Note: Paying back in equal installments, being given rate of interest and installment amount, not included.
      • 3. Algebra
        • (i) Expansions
          Recall of concepts learned in earlier classes. (a ± b) 2
          (a ± b) 3
          (x ± a)(x ± b)
          (a ± b ± c) 2
          (ii) Factorisation
          a2 – b 2
          a3 ± b 3
          ax 2 + bx + c, by splitting the middle term.
          (iii) Simultaneous Linear Equations in two variables. (With numerical coefficients only)
          • Solving algebraically by:
          - Elimination
          - Substitution and
          - Cross Multiplication method
          • Solving simple problems by framing appropriate equations. (iv) Indices/ Exponents
          Handling positive, fractional, negative and “zero” indices.
          Simplification of expressions involving various exponents
        • 4. Geometry
          • (i) Triangles
            (a) Congruency: four cases: SSS, SAS, AAS, and RHS. Illustration through cutouts. Simple applications.
          • (b) Problems based on:
            Angles opposite equal sides are equal and converse.
            If two sides of a triangle are unequal, then the greater angle is opposite the greater side and converse.
            Sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the third side.
            Of all straight lines that can be drawn to a given line from a point outside it, the perpendicular is the shortest.
            Proofs not required.
          • (c) Mid-Point Theorem and its converse, equal intercept theorem
            (i) Proof and simple applications of mid- point theorem and its converse.
            (ii) Equal intercept theorem: proof and simple application.
            (d) Pythagoras Theorem Area based proof and simple applications of Pythagoras Theorem and its converse.
            (ii) Rectilinear Figures
            (a) Proof and use of theorems onparallelogram. Both pairs of opposite sides equal (without proof).
            Both pairs of opposite angles equal.
            One pair of opposite sides equal and parallel (without proof). Diagonals bisect each other and bisect the parallelogram.
            Rhombus as a special parallelogram whose diagonals meet at right angles. In a rectangle, diagonals are equal, in a square they are equal and meet at right angles.
            (b) Constructions of Polygons Construction of quadrilaterals (including parallelograms and rhombus) and regular hexagon using ruler and compasses only.
          • (c) Proof and use of Area theorems on parallelograms:
            Parallelograms on the same base and between the same parallels are equal in area.
            The area of a triangle is half that of a parallelogram on the same base and between the same parallels.
            Triangles between the same base and between the same parallels are equal in area (without proof).
            Triangles with equal areas on the same bases have equal corresponding altitudes.
          • (iii) Circle:
            (a) Chord properties
            A straight line drawn from the center of a circle to bisect a chord which is not a diameter is at right angles to the chord. The perpendicular to a chord from the center bisects the chord (without proof). Areas of sectors of circles other than quarter- circle and semicircle are not included.
          • (c) Surface area and volume of 3-D solids: cube and cuboid including problems of type involving:
            Different internal and external dimensions of the solid.
            Cost.
            Concept of volume being equal to area of cross-section x height.
            Open/closed cubes/cuboids.
          • 5. Statistics
            Introduction, collection of data, presentation of data, Graphical representation of data, Mean, Median of ungrouped data.
            (i) Understanding and recognition of raw, arrayed and grouped data.
            (ii) Tabulation of raw data using tally-marks. (iii)Understanding and recognition of discrete and continuous variables.
            (iv) Mean, median of ungrouped data
            (v) Class intervals, class boundaries and limits, frequency, frequency table, class size for grouped data.
            (vi) Grouped frequency distributions: the need to and how to convert discontinuous intervals to continuous intervals.
            (vii)Drawing a frequency polygon.
          • 6. Mensuration Area and perimeter of a triangle and a quadrilateral. Area and circumference of circle. Surface area and volume of Cube and Cuboids.
            (a) Area and perimeter of triangle (including Heron’s formula), rhombus, parallelogram and trapezium.
            (b) Circle: Area and Circumference. Direct application problems including Inner and Outer area. Areas of sectors of circles other than quarter- circle and semicircle are not included.
            (c) Surface area and volume of 3-D solids: cube and cuboid including problems of type involving:
            Different internal and external dimensions of the solid.
            Cost.
            Concept of volume being equal to area of cross-section x height.
            Open/closed cubes/cuboids.
          • 7 Trigonometry
            (a) Trigonometric Ratios: sine, cosine, tangent of an angle and their reciprocals.
            (b) Trigonometric ratios of standard angles- 0, 30, 45, 60, 90 degrees. Evaluation of an expression involving these ratios.
            (c) Simple 2-D problems involving one right- angled triangle.
            (d) Concept of trigonometric ratios of complementary angles and their direct application:
            sin A = cos(90 - A), cos A = sin(90 – A) tan A = cot (90 – A), cot A = tan (90- A)
            sec A = cosec (90 – A), cosec A = sec(90 – A)
          • 8 Co-ordinate Geometry
            Cartesian System, Plotting of points in the plane for given coordinates, solving simultaneous linear equations in 2 variables graphically and finding the distance between two points using distance formula.
            (a) Dependent and independent variables.
            (b) Ordered pairs, co-ordinates of points and plotting them in the Cartesian plane.
            (c) Solution of Simultaneous Linear Equations graphically.
            (d) Distance formula.

    INTERNAL ASSESSMENT

    A minimum of two assignments are to be done during the year as prescribed by the teacher.

    Suggested Assignments

    • Conduct a survey of a group of students and represent it graphically - height, weight, number of family members, pocket money, etc.
    • Planning delivery routes for a postman/milkman.
    • Running a tuck shop/canteen.
    • Study ways of raising a loan to buy a car or house, e.g. bank loan or purchase a refrigerator or a television set through hire purchase.
    • Cutting a circle into equal sections of a small central angle to find the area of a circle by using the formula A = πr 2.
    • To use flat cutouts to form cube, cuboids and pyramids to obtain formulae for volume and total surface area.
    • Draw a circle of radius r on a ½ cm graph paper, and then on a 2 mm graph paper. Estimate the area enclosed in each case by actually counting the squares. Now try out with circles of different radii. Establish the pattern, if any, between the two observed values and the theoretical value (area = πr2 ). Any modifications?

ICSE 10 Physics Syllabus CLASS X Stroke 396

There will be one paper of two hours duration carrying 80 marks and Internal Assessment of practical work carrying 20 marks.

The paper will be divided into two sections, Section I (40 marks) and Section II (40 marks).

Section I (compulsory) will contain short answer questions on the entire syllabus.

Section II will contain six questions. Candidates will be required to answer any four of these six questions.

Note: Unless otherwise specified, only S. I. Units are to be used while teaching and learning, as well as for answering questions.

  • 1. Force, Work, Power and Energy
    • (i) Turning forces concept; moment of a force; forces in equilibrium; centre of gravity; [discussions using simple examples and simple numerical problems].
      Elementary introduction of translational and rotational motions; moment (turning effect) of a force, also called torque and its cgs and SI units; common examples - door, steering wheel, bicycle pedal, etc.; clockwise and anti-clockwise moments; conditions for a body to be in equilibrium ( translational and rotational); principle of moment and its verification using a metre rule suspended by two spring balances with slotted weights hanging from it; simple numerical problems; Centre of gravity (qualitative only) with examples of some regular bodies and irregular lamina.
    • (ii) Uniform circular motion.
      As an example of constant speed, though acceleration (force) is present. Differences between centrifugal and centripetal force.
    • (iii) Work, energy, power and their relation with force.
      Definition of work. W = FS cosθ; special cases of θ = 0 0 , 90 0 . W= mgh. Definition of energy, energy as work done. Various units of work and energy and their relation with SI units.[erg, calorie, kW h and eV]. Definition of Power, P=W/t; SI and cgs units; other units, kilowatt (kW), megawatt (MW) and gigawatt (GW); and horse power (1hp=746W) [Simple numerical problems on work, power and energy].
    • (iv) Different types of energy (e.g. chemical energy, Mechanical energy, heat energy, electrical energy, nuclear energy, sound energy, light energy).
      Mechanical energy: potential energy U =
      mgh (derivation included) gravitational PE, examples; kinetic energy K= ½ mv 2 (derivation included); forms of kinetic energy: translational, rotational and vibrational - only simple examples. [Numerical problems on K and U only in case of translational motion]; qualitative discussions of electrical, chemical, heat, nuclear, light and sound energy, conversion from one form to another; common examples.
    • (v) Machines as force multipliers; load, effort, mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and efficiency; simple treatment of levers, pulley systems showing the utility of each type of machine.
      Functions and uses of simple machines: Terms- effort E, load L, mechanical advantage MA = L/E, velocity ratio VR = V E /V L = d E / d L , input (W i ), output (W o ), efficiency (η), relation between η and MA,VR (derivation included); for all practical machines η <1; MA < VR.
      Lever: principle. First, second and third class of levers; examples: MA and VR in each case. Examples of each of these classes of levers as also found in the human body.
      Pulley system: single fixed, single movable, block and tackle; MA, VR and η in each case.
    • (vi) Principle of Conservation of energy.
      Statement of the principle of conservation of energy; theoretical verification that U + K = constant for a freely falling body. Application of this law to simple pendulum (qualitative only); [simple numerical problems].
  • 2. Light
    • (i) Refraction of light through a glass block and a triangular prism - qualitative treatment of simple applications such as real and apparent depth of objects in water and apparent bending of sticks in water. Applications of refraction of light.
      Partial reflection and refraction due to change in medium. Laws of refraction; the effect on speed (V), wavelength (λ) and frequency (f) due to refraction of light; conditions for a light ray to pass undeviated. Values of speed of light (c) in vacuum, air, water and glass; refractive index µ = c/V, V = fλ. Values of µ for common substances such as water, glass and diamond; experimental verification; refraction through glass block; lateral displacement; multiple images in thick glass plate/mirror; refraction through a glass prism simple applications: real and apparent depth of objects in water; apparent bending of a stick under water.
      (Simple numerical problems and approximate ray diagrams required).
    • (ii) Total internal reflection: Critical angle; examples in triangular glass prisms; comparison with reflection from a plane mirror (qualitative only). Applications of total internal reflection.
      Transmission of light from a denser medium (glass/water) to a rarer medium (air) at different angles of incidence; critical angle (C) µ = 1/sinC. Essential conditions for total internal reflection. Total internal reflection in a triangular glass prism; ray diagram, different cases - angles of prism (60º,60º,60º), (60º,30º,90º), (45º,45º,90º); use of right angle prism to obtain δ = 90º and 180º (ray diagram); comparison of total internal reflection from a prism and reflection from a plane mirror.
    • (iii) Lenses (converging and diverging) including characteristics of the images formed (using ray diagrams only); magnifying glass; location of images using ray diagrams and thereby determining magnification.
    • (iv) Types of lenses (converging and diverging), convex and concave, action of a lens as a set of prisms; technical terms; centre of curvature, radii of curvature, principal axis, foci, focal plane and focal length,; detailed study of refraction of light in spherical lenses through ray diagrams; formation of images - principal rays or construction rays; location of images from ray diagram for various positions of a small linear object on the principal axis; characteristics of images. Sign convention and direct numerical problems using the lens formula are included.(derivation of formula not required)
      Scale drawing or graphical representation of ray diagrams not required.
      Power of a lens (concave and convex) – [simple direct numerical problems]: magnifying glass or simple microscope: location of image and magnification from ray diagram only [formula and numerical problems not included]. Applications of lenses.
    • (v)Using a triangular prism to produce a visible spectrum from white light; Electromagnetic spectrum. Scattering of light.
      Deviation produced by a triangular prism; dependence on colour (wavelength) of light; dispersion and spectrum; electromagnetic spectrum: broad classification (names only arranged in order of increasing wavelength); properties common to all electromagnetic radiations; properties and uses of infrared and ultraviolet radiation. Simple application of scattering of light e.g. blue colour of the sky.
  • 3. Sound
    • (i) Reflection of Sound Waves; echoes: their use; simple numerical problems on echoes.
      Production of echoes, condition for formation of echoes; simple numerical problems; use of echoes by bats, dolphins, fishermen, medical field. SONAR.
    • (ii) Natural vibrations, Damped vibrations, Forced vibrations and Resonance - a special case of forced vibrations. Meaning and simple applications of natural, damped, forced vibrations and resonance.
    • (iii) Loudness, pitch and quality of sound:
      Characteristics of sound: loudness and intensity; subjective and objective nature of these properties; sound level in db (as unit only); noise pollution; interdependence of: pitch and frequency; quality and waveforms (with examples).
  • 4. Electricity and Magnetism
    • (i) Ohm€s Law; concepts of emf, potential difference, resistance; resistances in series and parallel, internal resistance.
      Ohm€s Law; concepts of emf, potential difference, resistance; resistances in series and parallel, internal resistance.
      (R) and charge (Q). Ohm's law: statement, V=IR; SI units; experimental verification; graph of V vs I and resistance from slope; ohmic and non-ohmic resistors, factors affecting resistance (including specific resistance) and internal resistance; super conductors, electromotive force (emf); combination of resistances in series and parallel and derivation of expressions for equivalent resistance. Simple numerical problems using the above relations. [Simple network of resistors].
    • (ii) Electrical power and energy.
      Electrical energy; examples of heater, motor, lamp, loudspeaker, etc. Electrical power; measurement of electrical energy, W = QV = VIt from the definition of pd. Combining with ohm€s law W = VIt = I 2 Rt = (V 2 /R)t and electrical power P = (W/t) = VI = I 2 R = V 2 /R. Units: SI and commercial; Power rating of common appliances, household consumption of electric energy; calculation of total energy consumed by electrical appliances; W = Pt (kilowatt × hour = kW h), [simple numerical problems].
    • (iii) Household circuits – main circuit; switches; fuses; earthing; safety precautions; three-pin plugs; colour coding of wires.
      House wiring (ring system), power distribution; main circuit (3 wires-live, neutral, earth) with fuse / MCB, main switch and its advantages - circuit diagram; two- way switch, staircase wiring, need for earthing, fuse, 3-pin plug and socket; Conventional location of live, neutral and earth points in 3 pin plugs and sockets. Safety precautions, colour coding of wires.
    • (iv) Magnetic effect of a current (principles only, laws not required); electromagnetic induction (elementary); transformer.
      Oersted€s experiment on the magnetic effect of electric current; magnetic field (B) and field lines due to current in a straight wire (qualitative only), right hand thumb rule – magnetic field due to a current in a loop; Electromagnets: their uses; comparisons with a permanent magnet; Fleming€s Left Hand Rule, the DC electric motor- simple sketch of main parts (coil, magnet, split ring commutators and brushes); brief description and type of energy transfer(working not required): Simple introduction to electromagnetic induction; frequency of AC in house hold supplies , Fleming€s Right Hand Rule, AC Generator - Simple sketch of main parts, brief description and type of energy transfer(working not required). Advantage of AC over DC. Transformer- its types, characteristics of primary and secondary coils in each type (simple labelled diagram and its uses).
  • 5. Heat
    • (i) Calorimetry: meaning, specific heat capacity; principle of method of mixtures; Numerical Problems on specific heat capacity using heat loss and gain and the method of mixtures.
      Heat and its units (calorie, joule), temperature and its units ( o C , K); thermal (heat) capacity C' = Q/T... (SI unit of C): Specific heat Capacity C = Q/mT (SI unit of C) Mutual relation between Heat Capacity and Specific Heat capacity, values of C for some common substances (ice, water and copper). Principle of method of mixtures including mathematical statement. Natural phenomenon involving specific heat. Consequences of high sp. heat of water. [Simple numerical problem].
    • (ii) Latent heat; loss and gain of heat involving change of state for fusion only.
      AChange of phase (state); heating curve for water; latent heat; sp latent heat of fusion (SI unit). Simple numerical problems. Common physical phenomena involving latent heat of fusion.
  • 6. Modern Physics
    • (i) Radioactivity and changes in the nucleus; background radiation and safety precautions.
      Brief introduction (qualitative only) of the nucleus, nuclear structure, atomic number (Z), mass number (A).Radioactivity as spontaneous disintegration. α, β and γ - their nature and properties; changes within the nucleus. One example each of α and β decay with equations showing changes in Z and A. Uses of radioactivity - radio isotopes.
      Harmful effects. Safety precautions. Background radiation.
      Radiation: X-rays; radioactive fallout from nuclear plants and other sources.
      Nuclear Energy: working on safe disposal of waste. Safety measures to be strictly reinforced.
    • (ii)Nuclear fission and fusion; basic introduction and equations.

A NOTE ON SI UNITS

SI units (Systeme International d€Unites) were adopted internationally in 1968.

Fundamental units

The system has seven fundamental (or basic) units, one for each of the fundamental quantities.

Fundamental quantity Unit
Name Symbol
Mass kilogram kg
Length metre m
Time second s
Electric current ampere A
Temperature kelvin K
Luminous intensity candela cd
Amount of substance mole mol

Derived units

These are obtained from the fundamental units by multiplication or division; no numerical factors are involved. Some derived units with complex names are:

Derived quantity Unit
Name Symbol
Volume cubic metre m
Density kilogram per cubic metre kg.m -3
Velocity metre per second m.s -1
Acceleration metre per second squared m. s -2
Momentum kilogrammetreper second kg.m.s -1

Some derived units are given special names due to their complexity when expressed in terms of the fundamental units, as below:

Derived quantity Unit
Name Symbol
Force newton N
Pressure pascal Pa
Energy, Work joule J
Power watt W
Frequency hertz Hz
Electric charge coulomb C
Electric resistance ohm Ω
Electromotive force volt V V

When the unit is named after a person, the symbol has a capital letter.

Standard prefixes

Decimal multiples and submultiples are attached to units when appropriate, as below:

Multiple Prefix Symbol
10 9 giga G
10 6 mega M
10 3 kilo k
10 -1 deci d
10 -2 centi c
10 -3 milli m
10 -6 micro µ
10 -9 nano n
10 -12 pico p
0 -15 femto f

INTERNAL ASSESSMENT OF PRACTICAL WORK

Candidates will be asked to carry out experiments for which instructions will be given. The experiments may be based on topics that are not included in the syllabus but theoretical knowledge will not be required. A candidate will be expected to be able to follow simple instructions, to take suitable readings and to present these readings in a systematic form. He/she may be required to exhibit his/her data graphically. Candidates will be expected to appreciate and use the concepts of least count, significant figures and elementary error handling.

Note: Teachers may design their own set of experiments, preferably related to the theory syllabus. A comprehensive list is suggested below.

  • 1. Lever - There are many possibilities with a meter rule as a lever with a load (known or unknown) suspended from a point near one end (say left), the lever itself pivoted on a knife edge, use slotted weights suspended from the other (right) side for effort.
    Determine the mass of a metre rule using a spring balance or by balancing it on a knife edge at some point away from the middle and a 50g weight on the other side. Next pivot (F) the metre rule at the 40cm, 50cm and 60cm mark, each time suspending a load L or the left end and effort E near the right end. Adjust E and or its position so that the rule is balanced. Tabulate the position of L, F and E and the magnitudes of L and E and the distances of load arm and effort arm. Calculate MA=L/E and VR = effort arm/load arm. It will be found that MA <VR in one case, MA=VR in another and MA>VR in the third case. Try to explain why this is so. Also try to calculate the real load and real effort in these cases.
  • 2. Determine the VR and MA of a given pulley system.
  • 3. Trace the course of different rays of light refracting through a rectangular glass slab at different angles of incidence, measure the angles of incidence, refraction and emergence. Also measure the lateral displacement.
  • 4. Determine the focal length of a convex lens by
    (a) the distant object method and (b) using a needle and a plane mirror.
  • 5. Determine the focal length of a convex lens by using two pins and formula f = uv/(u+v).
  • 6. For a triangular prism, trace the course of rays passing through it, measure angles i 1 , i 2 , A and .Repeat for four different angles of incidence (say i1 =400 , 500 , 600 and 70 0 ). Verify i1 + i2 =A+ and A = r1 + r2 .
  • For a ray of light incident normally (i1 =0) on one face of a prism, trace course of the ray. Measure the angle 𝛿. Explain briefly. Do this for prisms with A=600 , 450 and 900
  • Calculate the sp. heat of the material of the given calorimeter, from the temperature readings and masses of cold water, warm water and its mixture taken in the calorimeter.
  • 9. Determination of sp. heat of a metal by method of mixtures.
  • 10. Determination of specific latent heat of ice.
  • 11. Using as simple electric circuit, verify Ohm€s law. Draw a graph, and obtain the slope.
  • 12. Set up model of household wiring including ring main circuit. Study the function of switches and fuses.

Teachers may feel free to alter or add to the above list. The students may perform about 10 experiments. Some experiments may be demonstrated.

EVALUATION

  • The practical work/project work are to be evaluated by the subject teacher and by an External Examiner. (The External Examiner may be a teacher nominated by the Head of the school, who could be from the faculty, but not teaching the subject in the relevant section/class. For example, a teacher of Physics of Class VIII may be deputed to be an External Examiner for Class X, Physics projects.)
  • The Internal Examiner and the External Examiner will assess the practical work/project work independently.
  • Award of marks (20 Marks)
  • Subject Teacher (Internal Examiner) - 10 marks
  • External Examiner - 10 marks
  • The total marks obtained out of 20 are to be sent to the Council by the Head of the school.
  • The Head of the school will be responsible for the entry of marks on the mark sheets provided by the Council.

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