sample3ICSE 9
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ICSE 9 Biology Syllabus

ICSE 9 Chemistry Syllabus

ICSE 9 Maths Syllabus

ICSE 9 Physics Syllabus

ICSE 9 Biology Syllabus Stroke 396

CLASS IX Stroke 396

  • 1. To acquire the knowledge of the economic importance of plants and animals.
  • 2. To develop an understanding of the inter-relationship between sustainability and environmental adaptations.
  • 3. To develop an understanding of the interdependence of plants and animals so as to enable pupils to acquire a clearer comprehension of the significance of life and its importance in human welfare.
  • 4. To understand the capacities and limitations of all the biological and economic activities so as to be able to use them for a better quality of life.
  • 5. To acquire the ability to observe, experiment, hypothesis, infer, handle equipment accurately and make correct recordings.

CLASS IX

There will be one paper of two hours duration of 80 Marks and Internal Assessment of Practical Work Carrying 20 Marks.

The paper will be divided into two sections, Section I (40 marks) and Section II (40 marks).

Section I (compulsory) will contain short answer questions on the entire syllabus.

Section II will contain six questions. Candidates will be required to answer any four of these six questions.

  • 1. Basic Biology
    • (i) The cell, a unit of life, protoplasm, basic difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; differences between an animal and a plant cell.
    • A basic understanding of the cell theory, structure of plant and animal cell with functions of various cell organelles. (Protoplam, Cytoplasm, Cell Wall, Cell Membrane,Nucleus,Nucleolous, Mitochondria, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Ribosome, Golgibodies, Plastids, Lysosomes, Centrosome and Vacuole). Difference between a plant cell and an animal cell should be mainly discussed with respect to cell wall, centrosome and vacuoles and plastids.
    • (ii) Tissues: Types of plant and animal tissues. To be taught in brief with respect to location, basic structure and function, giving typical examples of their location so as to enable
    • 2. Flowering Plants
      • (i) Vegetative Propagation: Artificial methods, advantages and disadvantages. Economic importance of artificial propagation, Hybridisation.and Micro Propagation. Brief idea of Biotechnology and its applications role in medicine and industry.
        The concept in brief with suitable examples.Artificial methods: cutting, grafting and layering with examples. Advantages and disadvantages of vegetative reproduction to be discussed. Economic importance of artificial propagation. Hybridization: Meaning and benefits. Micro Propagation: meaning, uses and limitations. Brief idea of biotechnology (example - humaninsulin from E.coli. Applications of biotechnology: in medicine – penicillin, tetracycline; in industry (example – cheese, vinegar, yogurt, alcoholic beverages; synthesis of vitamins namely vitamin C; and enzymes - namely lipase).
      • (ii) Flower: Structure of a bisexual flower, functions of various parts. 101 A brief introduction to complete and incomplete flowers. Essential and non-essential whorls of a bisexual flower; their various parts and functions. Use of charts or actual specimens help enhance clarity of concepts. Inflorescence and placentation (types are not required in both cases).
      • (iii) Pollination: self and cross-pollination.
        Explanation, advantages and disadvantages of self and cross-pollination, agents of pollination and the characteristic features of flowers pollinated by various agents to be discussed.
      • (iv) Fertilisation.
        Events taking place between pollination and fertilisation should be discussed up to fusion of male gamete with egg cell in the embryo sac. Students should be familiar with the terms double fertilization and triple fusion. Fruit and Seed (definition) and significance of Fruit and Seed.
    • 3. Plant Physiology
      • (i) Structure of dicot and monocot seeds, Germination of seeds, types, and conditions for seed germination. Structure and germination of Bean seed and Maize grain. Differences between hypogeal and epigeal germination. Conditions for seed germination should be dealt with by experiments.
      • (ii) Respiration in plants: outline of the process, gaseous exchange. A brief outline of the process mentioning the term Glycolysis, Krebs cycle and their significance. Reference to be made to aerobic and anaerobic respiration with chemical equations in each case. Experiments on gaseous exchange and on heat production.
      • 4. Diversity in living organisms / Eco systems
        • (i) Understanding ecosystems – Definition. Interaction between biotic and abiotic factors. Biotic component consisting of producers, consumers, decomposers. Terms of food chain, food web, pyramid. Brief account of Abiotic or nonliving components such as air, soil, water and climatic factors like sunlight, temperature, humidity and wind. Only Forest Ecosystem with its flora and fauna to be taught.
        • (ii) A brief outline of five Kingdom classification:
          Main characteristics of each kingdom with suitable examples Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae(Thallophyta,Bryophyta, Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta) and Animalia (Non-chordates from Porifera to Echinodermata and Chordates - all five Classes)
        • (iii) Economic importance of Bacteria: Economic importance of bacteria:
          Useful role of bacteria - medicine (antibiotics, serums and vaccines); agriculture; (nitrogen fixing, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria) and industry (curing of tea, tanning of leather) Harmful role of bacteria in spoilage of food, disease in plants and animals, bio-weapons, denitrification.
        • (iv) Economic importance of Fungi: Economic importance of Fungi:
          Useful role of Fungi in breweries, bakeries, cheese processing, mushroom cultivation (Processes of manufacture are not required in each case).
      • 5. Human Anatomy and Physiology
        • (a) Nutrition:
            (i) Classes of food: balanced diet. Malnutrition and deficiency diseases. Functions of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, mineral salts (calcium, iodine, iron and sodium), vitamins and water in proper functioning of the body to be discussed. Sources of vitamins their functions and deficiency diseases to be discussed. Students should be familiar with the term
            Balanced Diet‚. Importance of cellulose in our diet should be discussed. Students should be taught about Kwashiorkor and Marasmus. 102
          • (ii) The structure of a tooth, different types of teeth.
            Structure of a tooth to be discussed with the help of a diagram. Functions of different types of teeth must also be taught.
          • (iii) Digestive System: Organs and digestive glands and their functions (including enzymes and their functions in digestion; absorption, utilisation of digested food); tests for reducing sugar, starch, protein and fats.
          • Organs and their functions; functions of saliva; brief idea of peristalsis; digestion in various parts of alimentary canal. Tests for sugar, starch, protein and fats.
        • (b) Movement and Locomotion:
          • (i) Functions of human skeleton
          • (ii) Axial and Appendicular Skeleton
          • (iii) Types of joints – immovable, slightly movable and freely movable (hinge joint, ball and socket joint, gliding joint, pivot joint.)
        • (c) Structure and functions of skin.
          Various parts of the skin and their functions to be taught with the help of diagrams; heat regulation, vasodilation, vasoconstriction to be explained.
        • (d) Respiratory System: Organs; mechanism of breathing; tissue respiration, heat production. Differences between anaerobic respiration in plants and in man. Brief idea of respiratory volumes, effect of altitude on breathing and asphyxiation should be taught. Role of diaphragm and intercostals muscles in breathing must be explained to provide a clear idea of breathing process. Brief idea of gaseous transport and tissue respiration to be given.
  • 6. Health and Hygiene Cause of diseases:
    • (i) Bacteria - types of bacteria, bacterial control, three examples of diseases caused by bacteria e.g. Tuberculosis, Tetanus, Syphilis (Veneral disease).
    • (ii) Virus - nature of viruses, three examples of viral diseases e.g. Poliomyelitis, Mumps, Rabies, etc. Introduction to HIV, its outline structure and spread.
    • (iii) Parasites - two examples, roundworm, tapeworm and their control.
    • (iv) Brief idea of endemic, epidemic, pandemic, and sporadic.
    • (v) Hygiene: simple personal hygiene and social conditions affecting this. Disease carriers (vectors) flies, rats and cockroaches, contamination of water, waterborne diseases.
  • General idea of personal hygiene, public hygiene and sanitation, control of housefly, mosquitoes, cockroaches and rats (life history not required). Water borne diseases like cholera, dysentery and Hepatitis.
  • 7. Waste generation and management
    • (a) Sources of waste - domestic, industrial, agricultural, commercial and other establishments. Domestic waste: paper, glass, plastic, rags, kitchen waste, etc.
      Industrial: mining operations, cement factories, oil refineries, construction units. Agricultural: plant remains, animal waste, processing waste.
      Municipal sewage: Sewage, degradable and non-degradable waste from offices, etc. E-waste: brief idea about e-waste.
    • (b) Methods of safe disposal of waste: segregation, dumping, composting, drainage, treatment of effluents before discharge, incineration, use of scrubbers and electro static precipitators.
      Segregation of domestic waste into biodegradable and non-biodegradable by households: sweeping from gardens to be converted to compost; sewage treatment plants.

    INTERNAL ASSESSMENT OF PRACTICAL WORK

    The practical work will be designed to test the ability of the candidates to make accurate observations from specimens of plants and animals. For this, candidates should be familiar with the use of a hand lens of not less than x 6 magnification. They should be trained to make both simple and accurate drawings and brief notes as a means of recording their observations.

    The practical examiners will assume that candidates would have carried out the practical work outlined below.

    NOTE: Candidates are expected to have a basic idea of plant morphology.

    PLANT LIFE

    • (i) The examination of an onion peel under the microscope to study various parts of the cell.Students should be given an idea of removal of onion peel, staining, mounting the specimen and handling the microscope. They should observe the structures and draw labelled diagrams.
    • (ii) A cross-pollinated flower to be examined and identified and the parts to be studied and labelled e.g. Hibiscus. Specimens should be provided to the students from which they should be asked to draw diagrams showing the various parts. The flower to be discussed in order of the four whorls with diagrams of the complete flower, reproductive parts and T.S of ovary to show the arrangement of ovules. Students should draw directly from the specimen provided so that they have a clear idea of the whorls and their location.
    • (iii) Specimens of germinating seeds with plumule and radicle (the bean seed and maize grain) for examination, identification, drawing and labelling the parts. Seeds soaked in water should be provided. The students themselves should see the external and internal structure so that they can identify the various parts and draw and label them.

    ANIMAL LIFE

    • (i) The examination of a human cheek cell under the microscope to study various parts of the cell. Students should be given an idea of staining, mounting the specimen and handling the microscope. They should observe the structures and draw labelled diagrams
    • (ii) Identification of sugar, starch, protein and fat.
      Students should perform different tests for identification and write down their observations and inference in tabular form.
    • (iii) Examination and identification of specimens belonging to the following groups of animals: Porifera, Coelenterata, Annelida, Platyhelminthes, Nemathelminthes, Arthropoda. Mollusca and Echinodermata. The specimens or models of the given groups of animals should be shown to the students and reasons for their identification in that particular group should be given. Diagrams should be drawn as observed in the specimens and not from the books. Only those structures that are observed should be drawn and labelled.
    • (iv) Study of different types of movable joints in human beings.
    • (v) Identification of the structure of the following organs through specimens/models and charts:, Lung.and skin.
    • (vi) Experiments to show the mechanism of breathing.
      Bell jar experiment should be discussed. Comparison should be made with the human lungs and respiratory tract to show the mechanism of breathing.
    • (vii)Visit a few establishments in the locality such as motor repair workshops, kilns, pottery making units, fish and vegetable markets, restaurants, dyeing units. Find out the types of wastes and methods prevalent for their disposal. On the basis of the information collected prepare a report, suggest measures to improve the environmental conditions.
    • (viii) Visit a water treatment plant, sewage treatment plant or garbage dumping or vermi composting sites in the locality and study their working.

    ICSE 9 Chemistry Syllabus

    CLASS IX Stroke 396

    • 1. To acquire knowledge and understanding of the terms, facts, concepts, definitions, laws, principles and processes of Physics.
    • 2. To develop skills in practical aspects of handling apparatus, recording observations and in drawing diagrams, graphs, etc.
    • 3. To develop instrumental, communication, deductive and problem-solving skills.
    • 4. To discover that there is a living and growing physics relevant to the modern age in which we live.

    CLASS IX

      There will be one paper of two hours duration carrying 80 marks and Internal Assessment of practical work carrying 20 marks.

      The paper will be divided into two sections, Section I (40 marks) and Section II (40 marks).

      Section I (compulsory) will contain short answer questions on the entire syllabus.

      Section II will contain six questions. Candidates will be required to answer any four of these six questions.

      Note: Unless otherwise specified, only S I. Units are to be used while teaching and learning, as well as for answering questions.

      1. Measurements and Experimentation

      (i) International System of Units, the required

      SI units with correct symbols are given at the end of this syllabus. Other commonly used system of units - fps and cgs.

      (ii) Measurements using common instruments, Vernier callipers and micro-metre screw gauge for length, and simple pendulum for time.

      Measurement of length using, Vernier callipers and micro-metre screw gauge. Decreasing least-count leads to an increase in accuracy; least-count (LC) of Vernier callipers and screw gauge), zero error (basic idea), (no numerical problems on callipers
      and screw gauge), simple pendulum; time

      period, frequency, graph of length l vs. T2 only; slope of the graph. Formula T=2.π.

      2. Motion in One Dimension

      Scalar and vector quantities, distance, speed, velocity, acceleration; graphs of distance-time and speed-time; equations of uniformly accelerated motion with derivations.

      Examples of Scalar and vector quantities only, rest and motion in one dimension; distance and displacement; speed and velocity; acceleration and retardation; distance-time and velocity-time graphs; meaning of slope of the graphs; [Non-uniform acceleration excluded].

      Equations to be derived: v = u + at;

      S = ut + ½at2;; S = ½(u+v)t; v2 = u2 + 2aS. [Equation for Snth is not included].

      Simple numerical problems.

      3. Laws of Motion

      (i) Contact and non-contact forces; cgs & SI units.

      Examples of contact forces (frictional force, normal reaction force, tension force as applied through strings and force exerted during collision) and non-contact forces (gravitational, electric and magnetic). General properties of non-contact forces. cgs and SI units of force and their relation with Gravitational units.

      (ii) Newton€s First Law of Motion (qualitative discussion) introduction of the idea of inertia, mass and force.

      l g [no derivation]. Only simple numerical problems.


      Newton's first law; statement and qualitative discussion; definitions of inertia and force from first law, examples of inertia as illustration of first law. (Inertial mass not included).

      80
      (iii)Newton€s Second Law of Motion (including
      F=ma); weight and mass.

      Detailed study of the second law. Linear momentum, p = mv; change in momentum Δp = Δ(mv) = mΔv for mass remaining constant, rate of change of momentum;

      Δ p/Δ t = mΔv /Δt = ma or
      { p2 - p1 mv - mu m( v - u )
      = = = ma } ;
      t t t

      Simple numerical problems combining F = Δp /Δt = ma and equations of motion. Units of force - only cgs and SI.

      (iv) Newton€s Third Law of Motion (qualitative discussion only); simple examples.

      Statement with qualitative discussion; examples of action - reaction pairs, (FBA and FAB); action and reaction always act on different bodies.

      (v) Gravitation

      Universal Law of Gravitation. ( Statement and equation) and its importance. Gravity, acceleration due to gravity, free fall. Weight and mass, Weight as force of gravity comparison of mass and weight; gravitational units of force, (Simple numerical problems), (problems on variation of gravity excluded)

      4. Fluids

      (i) Change of pressure with depth (including the formula p=hρg); Transmission of pressure in liquids; atmospheric pressure.

      Thrust and Pressure and their units; pressure exerted by a liquid column p = hρg; simple daily life examples, (i) broadness of

      the base of a dam, (ii) Diver€s suit etc. some consequences of p = hρg ; transmission of pressure in liquids; Pascal's law; examples;

      atmospheric pressure; common manifestation and consequences.. Variations of pressure with altitude, (qualitative only); applications such as weather forecasting and altimeter. (Simple numerical problems)

      (ii) Buoyancy, Archimedes€ Principle; floatation; relationship with density; relative density; determination of relative density of a solid.

      Buoyancy, upthrust (FB); definition; different cases, FB>, = or < weight W of the body immersed; characteristic properties of

      upthrust; Archimedes€ principle; explanation of cases where bodies with density ρ >, = or < the density ρ' of the fluid in which it is immersed.

      RD and Archimedes€ principle. Experimental determination of RD of a solid and liquid denser than water. Floatation: principle of floatation; relation between the density of a floating body, density of the liquid in which it is floating and the fraction of volume of the body immersed; (ρ1/ρ2 = V2/V1); apparent weight of floating object; application to ship, submarine, iceberg, balloons, etc.

      Simple numerical problems involving Archimedes€ principle, buoyancy and floatation.


      5. Heat and Energy

      (i) Concepts of heat and temperature. Heat as energy, SI unit – joule,

      1 cal = 4.186 J exactly.

      (ii) Anomalous expansion of water; graphs

      showing variation of volume and density of water with temperature in the 0 to 10 0C range. Hope€s experiment and consequences of Anomalous expansion.

      (iii)Energy flow and its importance:

      Understanding the flow of energy as Linear and linking it with the laws of Thermodynamics- ‚Energy is neither created nor destroyed€ and ‚No Energy transfer is 100% efficient.

      (iv) Energy sources.

      Solar, wind, water and nuclear energy (only qualitative discussion of steps to produce electricity). Renewable versus non-renewable sources (elementary ideas with example).

      Renewable energy: biogas, solar energy, wind energy, energy from falling of water, run-of-the river schemes, energy from waste, tidal energy, etc. Issues of economic viability and ability to meet demands.

      Non-renewable energy – coal, oil, natural gas. Inequitable use of energy in urban and rural areas. Use of hydro electrical powers for light and tube wells.

      (v) Global warming and Green House effect:

      81
      Meaning, causes and impact on the life on earth. Projections for the future; what needs to be done.

      Energy degradation –meaning and examples.

      6. Light

      (i) Reflection of light; images formed by a pair of parallel and perpendicular plane mirrors; .

      Laws of reflection; experimental verification; characteristics of images formed in a pair of mirrors, (a) parallel and

      (b) perpendicular to each other; uses of plane mirrors.

      (ii) Spherical mirrors; characteristics of image formed by these mirrors. Uses of concave and convex mirrors. (Only simple direct ray diagrams are required).

      Brief introduction to spherical mirrors - concave and convex mirrors, centre and radius of curvature, pole and principal axis, focus and focal length; location of images from ray diagram for various positions of a small linear object on the principal axis of concave and convex mirrors; characteristics of images.

      f = R/2 (without proof); sign convention and direct numerical problems using the mirror formulae are included. (Derivation of formulae not required)

      Uses of spherical mirrors.

      Scale drawing or graphical representation of ray diagrams not required.

      7. Sound

      (i) Nature of Sound waves. Requirement of a medium for sound waves to travel; propagation and speed in different media; comparison with speed of light.

      Sound propagation, terms – frequency (f), wavelength (λ), velocity (V), relation V = fλ. (Simple numerical problems) effect of different factors on the speed of sound; comparison of speed of sound with speed of light; consequences of the large difference in these speeds in air; thunder and lightning.

      (ii) Infrasonic, sonic, ultrasonic frequencies and their applications.
      Elementary ideas and simple applications only. Difference between ultrasonic and supersonic.

      8. Electricity and Magnetism

      (i) Simple electric circuit using an electric cell and a bulb to introduce the idea of current (including its relationship to charge);

      potential difference; insulators and conductors; closed and open circuits; direction of current (electron flow and conventional)

      Current Electricity: brief introduction of sources of direct current - cells, accumulators (construction, working and equations excluded); Electric current as the rate of flow of electric charge (direction of current - conventional and electronic), symbols used in circuit diagrams. Detection of current by Galvanometer or ammeter (functioning of the meters not to be introduced). Idea of electric circuit by using cell, key, resistance wire/resistance box/rheostat, qualitatively.; elementary idea about work done in transferring charge through a conductor wire; potential difference V = W/q.


      (No derivation of formula) simple numerical problems.

      Social initiatives: Improving efficiency of existing technologies and introducing new

      eco-friendly technologies. Creating awareness and building trends of sensitive use of resources and products, e.g. reduced use of electricity.

      (ii) Induced magnetism, Magnetic field of earth. Neutral points in magnetic fields.

      Magnetism: magnetism induced by bar magnets on magnetic materials; induction precedes attraction; lines of magnetic field and their properties; evidences of existence of earth€s magnetic field, magnetic compass. Uniform magnetic field of earth and non-uniform field of a bar magnet placed along magnetic north-south; neutral point; properties of magnetic field lines.

      (iii) Introduction of electromagnet and its uses.


    INTERNAL ASSESSMENT OF PRACTICAL WORK

    Candidates will be asked to observe the effect of reagents and/or of heat on substances supplied to them. The exercises will be simple and may include the recognition and identification of certain gases listed below.

    Gases: Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide,

    Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride, Sulphur dioxide,

    Hydrogen sulphide, Ammonia, Water vapour,

    Nitrogen dioxide.

    Candidates are expected to have completed the following minimum practical work.

    Simple experiments on:

    • 1. Heat the given (unknown) substance, make observations, identify any products and make deductions where possible.
      • (a) copper carbonate, zinc carbonate
      • (b) washing soda, copper sulphate crystals
      • (c) zinc nitrate, copper nitrate, lead nitrate
      • (d) ammonium chloride, iodine, ammonium dichromate 93
    • 2. Add dilute sulphuric acid to the unknown substance, warm if necessary, make observation, identify the product and make deductions.
      • (a) a sulphide
      • (b) a carbonate
      • (c) a metal
    • 3. Apply the flame test to identify the metal in the unknown substance.
      • (a) a sodium salt
      • (b) a potassium salt
      • (c) a calcium compound
    • 4. The percentage composition of a mixture of powdered salt and water-washed sand.
      The experiment would test techniques in dissolving, filtering or decanting, washing and weighing. It may be counted out as taking too much time. The weakness could be met by supplying a given weight of the mixture; also by choosing sand of such grain size that filtering or decanting will not be slow and yet not so large that separation of salt and sand cannot be done simply by sorting out mechanically the sand from the salt. The experiment should take about 20 minutes using 10g mixture (4g sand, 6g salt).
    • 5. Simple experiments based on hard water and soft water – identification of hardness – simple softening – by heating the temporary hard water, using washing soda and advantage of using detergents over soap in hard water.
    • 6. Find out the sources of pollution of water bodies in the locality and determine the quality of water.

    ICSE 9 Maths Syllabus

    CLASS X Stroke 396

    There will be one paper of two and a half hours (ii) Quadratic Equations in one variable duration carrying 80 marks and Internal Assessment of 20 marks.

    The paper will be divided into two sections, Section I (40 marks), Section II (40 marks).

    Section I: Will consist of compulsory short answer questions.

    Section II: Candidates will be required to answer four out of seven questions.

    Commercial Mathematics

    • (i) Value Added Tax Computation of tax including problems involving discounts, list-price, profit, loss, basic/cost price including inverse cases.
    • (ii) Banking Recurring Deposit Accounts: computation of interest and maturity value using the formula:
      I=P n(n+1)/(2×12)×r/100
      MV = P x n + I
    • (iii) Shares and Dividends
      • (a) Face/Nominal Value, Market Value, Dividend, Rate of Dividend, Premium.
      • (b) Formulae
        Income = number of shares × rate of dividend × FV.
        Return = (Income / Investment) × 100.
        Note: Brokerage and fractional shares not included
    • 2. Algebra
      • (i) Linear Inequations Linear Inequations in one unknown for x ∈ N, W, Z, R. Solving
        Algebraically and writing the solution in set notation form.
        Representation of solution on the number line.
      • (ii) Quadratic Equations in one variable
        (a) Nature of roots
        Two distinct real roots if b 2 – 4ac > 0
        Two equal real roots if b2 – 4ac = 0 No real roots if b2 – 4ac < 0
        (b) Solving Quadratic equations by: Factorisation Using Formula.
        (c) Solving simple quadratic equation problems.
      • (iii) Ratio and Proportion
        • (a) Proportion, Continued proportion, mean proportion
        • (b) Componendo, dividendo, alternendo, invertendo properties and their combinations.
        • (c) Direct simple applications on proportions only.
      • (iv) Factorisation of polynomials:
        • (a) Factor Theorem.
        • (b) Remainder Theorem.
        • (c) Factorising a polynomial completely after obtaining one factor by factor theorem.
          Note: f (x) not to exceed degree 3.
      • (v) Matrices
        • (a) Order of a matrix. Row and column matrices.
        • (b) Compatibility for addition and multiplication.
        • (c) Null and Identity matrices.
        • (d) Addition and subtraction of 2×2 matrices.
        • (e) Multiplication of a 2×2 matrix by
          a non-zero rational number
          a matrix.
      • (vi) Arithmetic and Geometric Progression
        • Finding their General term.
        • Finding Sum of their first ‘n’ terms.
        • Simple Applications.
      • (vii) Co-ordinate Geometry
        • (a) Reflection
        • (i) Reflection of a point in a line: x=0, y =0, x= a, y=a, the origin.
        • (ii) Reflection of a point in the origin. (iii) Invariant points.
        • (b) Co-ordinates expressed as (x,y), Section formula, Midpoint formula, Concept of slope, equation of a line, Various forms of straight lines.
        • (i) Section and Mid-point formula (Internal section only, co-ordinates of the centroid of a triangle included).
        • (ii) Equation of a line:
          Slope –intercept form y = mx  c Two- point form (y-y 1) = m(x-x 1)
          Geometric understanding of ‘m’
          as slope/ gradient/ tan where is the angle the line makes with the positive direction of the x axis.
          Geometric understanding of ‘c’ as the y-intercept/the ordinate of the point where the line intercepts the y axis/ the point on the line where x=0.
          Conditions for two lines to be parallel or perpendicular. Simple applications of all the above.
      • 3. Geometry
        (a) Similarity Similarity, conditions of similar triangles.
        • (i) As a size transformation.
        • (ii) Comparison with congruency, keyword being proportionality.
        • (iii) Three conditions: SSS, SAS, AA. Simple applications (proof not included).
        • (iv) Applications of Basic Proportionality Theorem.
        • (v) Areas of similar triangles are proportional to the squares of corresponding sides.
        • (vi) Direct applications based on the above including applications to maps and models.
        • (b) Loci
          Loci: Definition, meaning, Theorems and constructions based on Loci.
          (i) The locus of a point at a fixed distance from a fixed point is a circle with the fixed point as centre and fixed distance as radius.
          (ii) The locus of a point equidistant from two intersecting lines is the bisector of the angles between the lines.
          (iii) The locus of a point equidistant from two given points is the perpendicular bisector of the line joining the points. Proofs not required
        • (c) Circles
          (i) Angle Properties
          The angle that an arc of a circle subtends at the center is double that which it subtends at any point on the remaining part of the circle.
          Angles in the same segment of a circle are equal (without proof).
          Angle in a semi-circle is a right angle.
          (ii) Cyclic Properties:
          Opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral are supplementary.
          The exterior angle of a cyclic quadrilateral is equal to the opposite interior angle (without proof).
          (iii) Tangent and Secant Properties:
          The tangent at any point of a circle and the radius through the point are perpendicular to each other.
          If two circles touch, the point of contact lies on the straight line joining their centers.
          From any point outside a circle two tangents can be drawn and they are equal in length. If two chords intersect internally or externally then the product of the lengths of the segments are equal. If a chord and a tangent intersect externally, then the product of the lengths of segments of the chord is equal to the square of the length of the tangent from the point of contact to the point of intersection. If a line touches a circle and from the point of contact, a chord is drawn, the angles between the tangent and the chord are respectively equal to the angles in the corresponding alternate segments.
          Note: Proofs of the theorems given above are to be taught unless specified otherwise.
          (iv) Constructions
          (a) Construction of tangents to a circle from an external point.
          (b) Circumscribing and inscribing a circle on a triangle and a regular hexagon.
        • 4. Mensuration
          Area and volume of solids – Cylinder, Cone and Sphere. Three-dimensional solids - right circular cylinder, right circular cone and sphere: Area (total surface and curved surface) and Volume. Direct application problems including cost, Inner and Outer volume and melting and recasting method to find the volume or surface area of a new solid. Combination of solids included.
          Note: Problems on Frustum are not included.
        • 5. Trigonometry
          (a) Using Identities to solve/prove simple algebraic trigonometric expressions
          sin 2 A + cos 2 A = 1
          1 + tan 2 A = sec 2A
          1+cot 2A = cosec 2A; 0 ≤ A ≤ 90°
          (b) Heights and distances: Solving 2-D problems involving angles of elevation and depression using trigonometric tables.
          Note: Cases involving more than two right angled triangles excluded.
        • 6. Statistics
          Statistics – basic concepts, Mean, Median, Mode. Histograms and Ogive.
          (a) Computation of: Measures of Central Tendency: Mean, median, mode for raw and arrayed data. Mean*, median class and modal class for grouped data. (both continuous and discontinuous).
          * Mean by all 3 methods included:
          (b) Graphical Representation. Histograms and
          Finding the mode from the histogram, the upper quartile, lower Quartile and median etc. from the ogive.
          Calculation of inter Quartile range.
        • 7. Probability
          • Random experiments
          • Sample space
          • Events
          • Definition of probability
          • Simple problems on single events

    ICSE 9 Physics Syllabus Stroke 396

    There will be one paper of two hours duration carrying 80 marks and Internal Assessment of practical work carrying 20 marks.

    The paper will be divided into two sections, Section I (40 marks) and Section II (40 marks).

    Section I (compulsory) will contain short answer questions on the entire syllabus.

    Section II will contain six questions. Candidates will be required to answer any four of these six questions.

    Note: Unless otherwise specified, only S I. Units are to be used while teaching and learning, as well as for answering questions.

    • 1. Measurements and Experimentation
      • (i) International System of Units, the required SI units with correct symbols are given at the end of this syllabus. Other commonly used system of units - fps and cgs.
      • (ii) Measurements using common instruments, Vernier callipers and micro-metre screw gauge for length, and simple pendulum for time.
        Measurement of length using, Vernier callipers and micro-metre screw gauge. Decreasing least-count leads to an increase in accuracy; least-count (LC) of Vernier callipers and screw gauge), zero error (basic idea), (no numerical problems on callipers and screw gauge), simple pendulum; time period, frequency, graph of length l vs. T2 only; slope of the graph. Formula T=2.π.
    • 2. Motion in One Dimension
      Scalar and vector quantities, distance, speed, velocity, acceleration; graphs of distance-time and speed-time; equations of uniformly accelerated motion with derivations.
      Examples of Scalar and vector quantities only, rest and motion in one dimension; distance and displacement; speed and velocity; acceleration and retardation; distance-time and velocity-time graphs; meaning of slope of the graphs; [Non-uniform acceleration excluded].
      Equations to be derived: v = u + at;
      S = ut + ½at2;; S = ½(u+v)t; v2 = u2 + 2aS. [Equation for Snth is not included].
      Simple numerical problems.
    • 3. Laws of Motion
      • (i) Contact and non-contact forces; cgs & SI units.
        Examples of contact forces (frictional force, normal reaction force, tension force as applied through strings and force exerted during collision) and non-contact forces (gravitational, electric and magnetic). General properties of non-contact forces. cgs and SI units of force and their relation with Gravitational units.
      • (ii) Newton€s First Law of Motion (qualitative discussion) introduction of the idea of inertia, mass and force.
        l g [no derivation]. Only simple numerical problems.
        Newton's first law; statement and qualitative discussion; definitions of inertia and force from first law, examples of inertia as illustration of first law. (Inertial mass not included).
      • (iii)Newton€s Second Law of Motion (including
        F=ma); weight and mass.
        Detailed study of the second law. Linear momentum, p = mv; change in momentum Δp = Δ(mv) = mΔv for mass remaining constant, rate of change of momentum;
        Δ p/Δ t = mΔv /Δt = ma or
        { p2 - p1 mv - mu m( v - u )
        = = = ma } ;
        t t t
        Simple numerical problems combining F = Δp /Δt = ma and equations of motion. Units of force - only cgs and SI.
      • (iv) Newton€s Third Law of Motion (qualitative discussion only); simple examples.Statement with qualitative discussion; examples of action - reaction pairs, (FBA and FAB); action and reaction always act on different bodies.
      • (v) Gravitation
        Universal Law of Gravitation. ( Statement and equation) and its importance. Gravity, acceleration due to gravity, free fall. Weight and mass, Weight as force of gravity comparison of mass and weight; gravitational units of force, (Simple numerical problems), (problems on variation of gravity excluded)
    • 4. Fluids
      • (i) Change of pressure with depth (including the formula p=hρg); Transmission of pressure in liquids; atmospheric pressure.
        Thrust and Pressure and their units; pressure exerted by a liquid column p = hρg; simple daily life examples,
        (i) broadness of the base of a dam,
        (ii) Diver€s suit etc. some consequences of p = hρg ; transmission of pressure in liquids; Pascal's law; examples;
        atmospheric pressure; common manifestation and consequences.. Variations of pressure with altitude, (qualitative only); applications such as weather forecasting and altimeter. (Simple numerical problems)
      • (ii) Buoyancy, Archimedes€ Principle; floatation; relationship with density; relative density; determination of relative density of a solid.
        Buoyancy, upthrust (FB); definition; different cases, FB>, = or < weight W of the body immersed; characteristic properties of upthrust; Archimedes€ principle; explanation of cases where bodies with density ρ >, = or < the density ρ' of the fluid in which it is immersed.
        RD and Archimedes€ principle. Experimental determination of RD of a solid and liquid denser than water. Floatation: principle of floatation; relation between the density of a floating body, density of the liquid in which it is floating and the fraction of volume of the body immersed; (ρ1/ρ2 = V2/V1); apparent weight of floating object; application to ship, submarine, iceberg, balloons, etc.
        Simple numerical problems involving Archimedes€ principle, buoyancy and floatation.
    • 5. Heat and Energy
      • (i) Concepts of heat and temperature. Heat as energy, SI unit – joule, 1 cal = 4.186 J exactly.
      • (ii) Anomalous expansion of water; graphs showing variation of volume and density of water with temperature in the 0 to 10 0C range. Hope€s experiment and consequences of Anomalous expansion.
      • (iii)Energy flow and its importance:
        Understanding the flow of energy as Linear and linking it with the laws of Thermodynamics- ‚Energy is neither created nor destroyed€ and ‚No Energy transfer is 100% efficient.
      • (iv) Energy sources.
        Solar, wind, water and nuclear energy (only qualitative discussion of steps to produce electricity). Renewable versus non-renewable sources (elementary ideas with example).
        Renewable energy: biogas, solar energy, wind energy, energy from falling of water, run-of-the river schemes, energy from waste, tidal energy, etc. Issues of economic viability and ability to meet demands.
        Non-renewable energy – coal, oil, natural gas. Inequitable use of energy in urban and rural areas. Use of hydro electrical powers for light and tube wells.
      • (v) Global warming and Green House effect:
        Meaning, causes and impact on the life on earth. Projections for the future; what needs to be done. Energy degradation –meaning and examples.
    • 6. Light
      • (i) Reflection of light; images formed by a pair of parallel and perpendicular plane mirrors; .
        Laws of reflection; experimental verification; characteristics of images formed in a pair of mirrors, (a) parallel and
      • (b) perpendicular to each other; uses of plane mirrors.
      • (ii) Spherical mirrors; characteristics of image formed by these mirrors. Uses of concave and convex mirrors. (Only simple direct ray diagrams are required).
      • Brief introduction to spherical mirrors - concave and convex mirrors, centre and radius of curvature, pole and principal axis, focus and focal length; location of images from ray diagram for various positions of a small linear object on the principal axis of concave and convex mirrors; characteristics of images.
      • f = R/2 (without proof); sign convention and direct numerical problems using the mirror formulae are included. (Derivation of formulae not required) Uses of spherical mirrors.
        Scale drawing or graphical representation of ray diagrams not required.
    • 7. Sound
      • (i) Nature of Sound waves. Requirement of a medium for sound waves to travel; propagation and speed in different media; comparison with speed of light.
        Sound propagation, terms – frequency (f), wavelength (λ), velocity (V), relation V = fλ. (Simple numerical problems) effect of different factors on the speed of sound; comparison of speed of sound with speed of light; consequences of the large difference in these speeds in air; thunder and lightning.
      • (ii) Infrasonic, sonic, ultrasonic frequencies and their applications. Elementary ideas and simple applications only. Difference between ultrasonic and supersonic.
    • 8. Electricity and Magnetism
      • (i) Simple electric circuit using an electric cell and a bulb to introduce the idea of current (including its relationship to charge);
        potential difference; insulators and conductors; closed and open circuits; direction of current (electron flow and conventional)
        Current Electricity: brief introduction of sources of direct current - cells, accumulators (construction, working and equations excluded); Electric current as the rate of flow of electric charge (direction of current - conventional and electronic), symbols used in circuit diagrams. Detection of current by Galvanometer or ammeter (functioning of the meters not to be introduced). Idea of electric circuit by using cell, key, resistance wire/resistance box/rheostat, qualitatively.; elementary idea about work done in transferring charge through a conductor wire; potential difference V = W/q.
        (No derivation of formula) simple numerical problems.
        Social initiatives: Improving efficiency of existing technologies and introducing new eco-friendly technologies. Creating awareness and building trends of sensitive use of resources and products, e.g. reduced use of electricity.
      • (ii) Induced magnetism, Magnetic field of earth. Neutral points in magnetic fields.
        Magnetism: magnetism induced by bar magnets on magnetic materials; induction precedes attraction; lines of magnetic field and their properties; evidences of existence of earth€s magnetic field, magnetic compass. Uniform magnetic field of earth and non-uniform field of a bar magnet placed along magnetic north-south; neutral point; properties of magnetic field lines.
      • (iii) Introduction of electromagnet and its uses.

    INTERNAL ASSESSMENT OF PRACTICAL WORK

    Candidates will be asked to carry out experiments for which instructions are given. The experiments may be based on topics that are not included in the syllabus but theoretical knowledge will not be required. A candidate will be expected to be able to follow simple instructions, to take suitable readings and to present these readings in a systematic form. He/she may be required to exhibit his/her data

    graphically. Candidates will be expected to appreciate and use the concepts of least count, significant figures and elementary error handling.

    A set of 6 to 10 experiments may be designed as given below or as found most suitable by the teacher. Students should be encouraged to record their observations systematically in a neat tabular form - in columns with column heads including units or in numbered rows as necessary. The final result or conclusion may be recorded for each experiment. Some of the experiments may be demonstrated (with the help of students) if these cannot be given to each student as lab experiments.

    • 1. Determine the least count of the Vernier callipers and measure the length and diameter of a small cylinder (average of three sets) - may be a metal rod of length 2 to 3 cm and diameter 1 to 2 cm.
    • 2. Determine the pitch and least count of the given screw gauge and measure the mean radius of the given wire, taking three sets of readings in perpendicular directions.
    • 3. Measure the length, breadth and thickness of a glass block using a metre rule (each reading correct to a mm), taking the mean of three readings in each case. Calculate the volume of the block in cm3 and m3. Determine the mass (not weight) of the block using any convenient balance in g and kg. Calculate the density of glass in cgs and SI units using mass and volume in the respective units. Obtain the relation between the two density units.
    • 4. Measure the volume of a metal bob (the one used in simple pendulum experiments) from the readings of water level in a measuring cylinder using displacement method. Also calculate the same volume from the radius measured using Vernier callipers. Comment on the accuracies.
    • 5. Obtain five sets of readings of the time taken for 20 oscillations of a simple pendulum of lengths
      about 70, 80, 90, 100 and 110 cm; calculate the time periods (T) and their squares (T2) for each length (l). Plot a graph of l vs. T2. Draw the best- fit straight - line graph. Also, obtain its slope. Calculate the value of g in the laboratory. It is 4π2 x slope.
    • 6. Take a beaker of water. Place it on the wire gauze on a tripod stand. Suspend two thermometers - one with Celsius and the other with Fahrenheit scale. Record the thermometer readings at 5 to 7 different temperatures. You may start with ice-cold water, then allow it to warm up and then heat it slowly taking temperature (at regular intervals) as high as possible. Plot a graph of TF vs. TC. Obtain the slope. Compare with the theoretical value. Read the intercept on TF axis for TC = 0.
    • 7. Using a plane mirror strip mounted vertically on a board, obtain the reflected rays for three rays incident at different angles. Measure the angles of incidence and angles of reflection. See if these angles are equal.
    • 8. Place three object pins at different distances on a line perpendicular to a plane mirror fixed vertically on a board. Obtain two reflected rays (for each pin) fixing two pins in line with the image. Obtain the positions of the images in each case by extending backwards (using dashed lines), the lines representing reflected rays. Measure the object distances and image distances in the three cases. Tabulate. Are they equal? Generalize the result.
    • 9. Obtain the focal length of a concave mirror (a) by distant object method, focusing its real image on a screen or wall and (b) by one needle method removing parallax or focusing the image of the illuminated wire gauze attached to a ray box. One could also improvise with a candle and a screen. Enter your observations in numbered rows.
    • 10. Connect a suitable dc source (two dry cells or an acid cell), a key and a bulb (may be a small one used in torches) in series. Close the circuit by inserting the plug in the key. Observe the bulb as it lights up. Now open the circuit, connect another identical bulb in between the first bulb and the cell so that the two bulbs are in series. Close the key. Observe the lighted bulbs. How does the light from any one bulb compare with that in the first case when you had only one bulb? Disconnect the second bulb. Reconnect the circuit as in the first experiment. Now connect the second bulb across the first bulb. The two bulbs are connected in parallel. Observe the brightness of any one bulb. Compare with previous results. Draw your own conclusions regarding the current and resistance in the three cases.
    • 11. Plot the magnetic field lines of earth (without any magnet nearby) using a small compass needle. On another sheet of paper place a bar magnet with its axis parallel to the magnetic lines of the earth, i.e. along the magnetic meridian or magnetic north south. Plot the magnetic field in the region around the magnet. Identify the regions where the combined magnetic field of the magnet and the earth is (a) strongest, (b) very

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