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# CBSE Class 12 Syllabus Chemistry

Students preparing for entrance exams and solely hoping to excel in that tend to choose subjects that go light on their preparation, so that their focus can be on the various entrance examinations like JEE Mains and JEE Advanced, AIPMT, AIIMS, etc Among all this stands a very common and important scoring subject chemistry !!! Chemistry is further divided as Physical, Organic & Inorganic chemistry Physical chemistry :- understanding the concepts and knowing how to apply the formula to calculate the physical parameters of a chemical process is aim of this sub topic Organic chemistry :- Under this section you will learn about organic reactions and mechanism of few important name reactions. Inorganic chemistry :- It aims at making a student aware of important chemical and physical properties of s,p d&f elements, understanding the nomenclature and studying important named reaction and understanding the bonding aspects.

SYLLABUS FOR SESSION 2021-22

CLASS XII

Term-I

 S.No UNIT Periods MARKS 1 Solid State 8 10 2 Solutions 8 3 p-Block Elements 7 10 4 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes 9 15 5 Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers 9 6 Biomolecules 8 TOTAL 49 35

### Solid State:

Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects.

Solutions:

Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, Raoult’s law, colligative properties – relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties.

### p Block Elements:

Group -15 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; Nitrogen preparation properties and uses; compounds of Nitrogen: preparation and properties of Ammonia and Nitric Acid.

Group 16 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses, classification of Oxides, Ozone, Sulphur -allotropic forms; compounds of Sulphur: preparation properties and uses of Sulphur-dioxide, Sulphuric Acid: properties and uses; Oxoacids of Sulphur (Structures only).

Group 17 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, Preparation, properties and uses of Chlorine and Hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, Oxoacids of halogens (structures only).

Group 18 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.

Haloalkanes and Haloarenes: Haloalkanes:

Nomenclature, nature of C–X bond, physical and chemical properties, optical rotation mechanism of substitution reactions.

Haloarenes:

Nature of C–X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only).

Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers: Alcohols:

Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration.

Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.

Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.

Biomolecules:

Carbohydrates – Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose), D-L configuration

Proteins -Elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins – primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins.  Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA

# PRACTICALS

Term I:

A 15-mark Practical would be conducted under the supervision of subject teacher/ internal examiner. This would contribute to the overall practical marks for the subject.

# OR

In case the situation of lockdown continues until Nov-Dec 2021, a Practical Based Assessment (pen paper) of 15 marks would be conducted at the end of Term I at the school level and marks would be submitted by the schools to the Board. This would contribute to the overall practical marks for the subject.

Term-I Evaluation Scheme

 S. No Practical Marks 1. Volumetric Analysis 4 2. Salt Analysis 4 3. Content Based experiment 2 4. Class record and viva(Internal Examiner) 5 TOTAL 15

# (1) Volumetric analysis (4 marks)

Determination of concentration/ molarity of $\mathrm{KMnO}_{4}$ solution by titrating it against a standard solution of:

i. Oxalic acid,

ii. Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate

(Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves).

# (2) Salt analysis (Qualitative analysis) (4 marks)

Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt.

Cations – $\mathrm{Pb}^{2+}, \mathrm{Cu}^{2+}, \mathrm{As}^{3+}, =\mathrm{Al}^{3+},\mathrm{Fe}^{3+}, \mathrm{Mn}^{2+}, \mathrm{Ni}^{2+}, =\mathrm{Zn}^{2+},\mathrm{Co}^{2+}, \mathrm{Ca}^{2+}, \mathrm{Sr}^{2+}, =\mathrm{Ba}^{2+}, \mathrm{Mg}{2+}, \mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+}$

Anions – $\left(\mathrm{CO}_{3}\right)^{2-}, \mathrm{S}^{2-},\mathrm{NO}_{2}-,\mathrm{SO}_{3}^{2-}, \mathrm{SO}_{4}^{2-}, \mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-},\mathrm{Cl}^{-},\mathrm{Br}^{-}, \mathrm{I}^{-}, \mathrm{PO}_{4}^{3-},\mathrm{C}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{4}{ }^{2-}, \mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{CQQ}^{-}$ (Note: Insoluble salts excluded)

# (3) Content Based Experiments (2 marks)

A. Chromatography

i. Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of Rf values.

ii. Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only (constituents having large difference in Rf values to be provided).

B. Characteristic tests of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in pure samples and their detection in given foodstuffs.

SYLLABUS FOR SESSION 2021-22

CLASS XII

Term-II

 S.No UNIT No. of Periods MARKS 1 Electrochemistry 7 13 2 Chemical Kinetics 5 3 Surface Chemistry 5 4 d-and f-Block Elements 7 9 5 Coordination Compounds 8 6 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 10 13 7 Amines 7 TOTAL 49 35

Electrochemistry:

Redox reactions, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis.

Chemical Kinetics:

Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half-life (only for zero and first order reactions).

Surface Chemistry:

Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension; lyophilic, lyophobic, multi-molecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation.

d-and f-Block Elements:

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation.

Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.

Coordination Compounds:

Coordination compounds – Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding, Werner’s theory, VBT, and CFT.

Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids:

Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes, uses.

Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.

Amines:

Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.

# PRACTICALS

Term II:

At the end of Term II, a 15-mark Practical would be conducted under the supervision of Board appointed external examiners. This would contribute to the overall practical marks for the subject.

OR

In case the situation of lockdown continues beyond December 2021, a Practical Based Assessment (pen-paper) of 10 marks and Viva 5 marks would be conducted at the end of Term II jointly by the external and internal examiners and marks would be submitted by the schools to the Board. This would contribute to the overall practical marks for the subject.

TERM-II Evaluation Scheme

 S. No Practical Marks 1. Volumetric Analysis 4 2. Salt Analysis 4 3 Content Based Experiment 2 4 Project Work  and Viva(Internal and External Both) 5 TOTAL 15

1)  Volumetric analysis (4 marks)

Determination of concentration/ molarity of $\mathrm{KMnO}_{4}%%EDITORCONTENT%%nbsp; solution by titrating it against a standard solution of: i. Oxalic acid, ii. Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate (Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves). # 2) Salt analysis (Qualitative analysis) (4 marks) Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt. Cations-$\mathrm{Pb}^{2+}, \mathrm{Cu}^{2+}, \mathrm{As}^{3+},\mathrm{Al}^{3+}\mathrm{Fe}^{3+}, \mathrm{Mn}^{2+},\mathrm{Ni}^{2+}, \mathrm{Zn}^{2+},\mathrm{Co}^{2+}, \mathrm{Ca}^{2+}, \mathrm{Sr}^{2+}, \mathrm{Ba}^{2+},\mathrm{Mg}^{2+},\mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+}$Anions –$\left(\mathrm{CO}_{3}\right)^{2-}, \mathrm{S}^{2},\mathrm{NO}_{2},\mathrm{SO}_{3}^{2-}, \mathrm{SO}_{4}^{2-},\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}, \mathrm{Cl}^{-}, \mathrm{Br}^{-}, \mathrm{I}^{-},\mathrm{PO}_{4}{ }^{3-}, \mathrm{C}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{4}{ }^{2-},\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{COQ}^{-}\$

(Note: Insoluble salts excluded)

# 3) Content based experiment

A. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds

Preparation of double salt of Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate or Potash Alum. Preparation of Potassium Ferric Oxalate.

B. Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds:

Unsaturation, alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic and amino (Primary) groups.

Guidelines on Syllabus for Visually Handicapped students.

Schools are expected to rationalise and divide the syllabus of practicums for visually handicapped students into two halves on the basis of collective guidelines given for the same in the complete syllabus and as per the convenience of their students. This flexibility is given in view of the special condition of visually handicapped students .They will, however, be assessed on 15 marks in practical examination in both the terms as rest of their peers.

General Instructions for Investigatory Project

In Chemistry the students of class XI and XII are supposed to conduct a scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources. This project is assessed as a part of practical examination at the end of year.

At the outset, teachers must map appropriate competencies or learning outcomes with real world problems (projects) that are age appropriate for their students. Students in consultation with their teacher finally determine the project question for them depending upon their interest and proclivity. A project should ideally arise out of the need felt by the student. Students explore their areas of interest and narrow down their ideas to a testable hypothesis or problem question.

For example: Abdul waits for summers as his favourite fruit watermelon is available in plenty. This year he noticed that every time he bought a watermelon its colour was dark red and was exceptionally sweet from inside. This never happened in earlier years. Some watermelons would be sweet some would not. Abdul were surprised by this observation and worried if the fruit was adulterated. He thought of conducting a test to find out if fruits and vegetables available in his locality were adulterated. He reviewed articles and papers on adulteration and found out simple tests to check adulteration at home. Abdul conducted the test and shared his results with his friend and teacher. He developed a small manual to help other check adulteration in fruits.

There are many issues in our immediate surroundings which need to be addressed. Keen observation will help identify the problem.

Before developing a problem question, students must do research on topics and find out what other people have already done in the selected area to avoid repetition. During this phase, students should be encouraged to record the reference of every bit of information they got from different sources. After developing problem question, students should write down precise testable hypothesis and design an experiment or procedure to test their hypothesis by collecting and analysing the data followed by writing conclusion and limitation of the study. Students must also develop a timeline and checklist about accessibility to resources required, safety of experiment/procedure, harmlessness of experiments to environment, organisms and other people. Teacher must ensure that it is doable within a specified period of time and available resources and is appropriately challenging to a particular student (neither be very complex or longer nor be very easy and short). It should not culminate into finding information from a book or website.

A project could have the following outline:

1. Statement of Problem- A clear statement of the problem/need that has given rise to the project

2. Objectives- General and specific objectives of topic

3. Introduction- The introduction should describe the relevance of problem or why the problem is the most appropriate for your inquiry. It should also describe previously known facts about your problem question with proper bibliography. Introduction towards end briefly includes hypothesis your hypothesis and the method to test it.

4. Problem question (specific, concrete questions to which concrete answers can be given) and/ or hypotheses

5. Methods/Procedures Methodology (will your research be based on survey, an experimental investigation, historical study, ethnographic study or content analysis).Methods describe the experiments proposed or the observations planned to make and the detailed process of analysis of data/observations. Methods proposed should be feasible and be able to adequately answer problem question.

6. Materials/Resources required

# 7. Observations/Data gathered

Using the procedures mentioned in introduction, experiments should be conducted and data should be recorded. Interesting things that happened during the conduct of experiments should also be recorded.

# 8. Analysis of data and discussion of result

Data should be interpreted in terms of proposed hypothesis. Data should be tabulated and interpreted with the help of graphs if possible. The interpretation should be done in an honest manner even if it does not support proposed hypothesis.

9. Conclusion Reporting and writing up the report

Discussion of new learning from the study may be covered under conclusion. This may have possible suggestions for future studies.

# 10. Limitation of the study

The limitations of the study are those features of design or procedure that might have affected the interpretation of the results of study. The limitations are alternatively interpreted as flaws or shortcomings due to flawed methodology, observations, small number of experiments or non-peer reviewed nature of study etc.

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