Class 6 Science Chapter 3 Notes: Here we have provided the students with CBSE class 6 Science chapter 3 Notes from Fibre to Fabric. Download the free pdf of Fibre to Fabric class 6 Science notes.
Fibre to Fabric Class 6 Chapter 3 Science Notes
Fibres are long, narrow, thin structures found in all cloth materials. The fibres we use are derived both from natural and man-made sources.
- Natural Sources: Cotton, jute, silk, wool, etc., are obtained from natural sources – plants or animals.
- Man-made Sources: Polyester, nylon, rayon etc., are man-made materials used for making clothes.
Types of Fibre
Depending on their origin, fibres are classified into two types:
- Natural Fibres: These fibres are naturally obtained from plants and animals. Cotton and Jute are fibre obtained from plants. Silk and Wool are fibre obtained from animals.
- Synthetic Fibre: These fibres are artificially synthesized by humans within the industry by the application of simple chemicals.
Examples: Acrylic, polyester, nylon, rayon, acetate, are a few examples of Synthetic fibre.
All the plants have fibres in their body structure, e.g., cotton and mango have fibres on their seed, coconut on its fruit, and jute in its stem and banana tree in its leaf. It is cultivated in rainy seasons and is basically grown in the states of West Bengal, Bihar and Assam.
Important animal fibres are wool (hair of sheep) and silk (from silkworm). Cotton is the most important industrial crop.
- Wool fibres come from sheep, camel, goat, and yak. The process involved in making animal fibres into wool follows a series of steps — Shearing, Scouring, Sorting, Cleaning, Dyeing, Straightening, Rolling and Combing.
- Silk fibres are obtained from the silkworm and the process of obtaining silk from the silkworm is called Sericulture. The silk thread or the yarn is obtained from the silk moth’s cocoon.
A silkworm’s life cycle begins with:
- After mating, the female silk moth lays around 200 – 300 eggs at a time.
- The egg hatches and new silkworms arise and feed on mulberry leaves for around 30 days and move into the next stage.
- Cocoon, a protective layer or a silky web spun is developed around the larvae, which is the size of a small cotton ball made of a single silk thread.
- Pupa stage. A stage where silk fibres are obtained by killing the pupa and plunging the cocoon into boiling water and unwinding the silk thread.
- The last stage of a life cycle, in which the completely developed pupa changes into an adult moth. Again the life cycle begins from here.
The Composition of Fibres
The thin strands made from fibre are called yarns. Spinning is the process of making yarn.
Cotton is obtained from cotton bolls, which are taken directly from the surface of cotton seeds. It is grown in black clayey soil with a warm climate.
The processing of cotton involves Ginning, Spinning, Weaving and Knitting.
The plant from which cotton is picked contains seeds. The process of removing these seeds from cotton pods is known as ginning. Ginning can be done using hands or by machines.
The process of making yarn from thin strands of fibres is called spinning. It can be done by hand or on a spinning wheel.
Two distinct yarns are arranged together on weaving machines, known as looms, to make a fabric.
Knitting is one of the most popular methods to make fabrics from yarns. Hand knitting is a conventional method of knitting, though it is also done on machines. For example, sweaters are knitted from wool.
Fibre and Fabric:
Clothes are made mostly from fibres. Fibres are thin strands of thread that are woven to make fabric, for example, cotton fabric, silk fabric, etc. The fabric is stitched to make clothes. For example, cotton fabric can be stitched into a cotton frock or a cotton kurta. There are two main processes of making fabric from fibre – weaving and knitting.
Evolution of Clothing
About 30,000 years ago, people started using animal skins for clothing. It is believed that wool was used as early as 6000 years ago.
Domestication of silkworms to produce silk occurred around 3000 BC in China. In India, cotton came into widespread use around 3000 BC. These fabrics were not stitched. They were just wrapped around the body. Even today, sari, dhoti, and turban are unstitched pieces of cloth.
Flax fibres were the first to be put to use as clothing followed by cotton.
In modern days, clothing became mechanized, where machines have more to do with making clothes.
Other Important Plant Fibres:
There are other useful plant fibres as well:
- Coir: Coir is the fibre obtained from the outer covering or the husk of the coconut. Usually coconuts are left in water for a few months. The husk is then separated from the nut and beaten with wooden mallets to get the fibre. The fibre thus obtained is spun and dyed and is ready for weaving. Coir is used to make several household products like rope and floor covering and also as a stuffing in mattresses and pillows.
- Silk cotton: Silk cotton is another plant fibre that is commonly used as a stuffing in pillow, sleeping bag, and life jacket. This fibre is obtained from the silk cotton tree, also called kapok. The fruits of the kapok tree contain fibres that are light and fluffy (like cotton). When the fruit ripens, it bursts open, releasing the fibres.
- Hemp: Hemp fibres are obtained from the stem of the hemp plant. Hemp fibres are used in the production of ropes, carpets, nets, clothes, and paper.
We hope the above CBSE Class 6 revision Science notes chapter 3 Fibre to Fabric will be helpful for you
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