To acquire knowledge and understanding of the terms, facts, concepts, definitions, laws, principles and processes of Physics
To develop skills in practical aspects of handling apparatus, recording observations and in drawing diagrams, graphs, etc.
To develop instrumental, communication, deductive and problem-solving skills.
To discover that there is a living and growing physics relevant to the modern age in which we live
Assessment of practical work
Time limit: 2 hours
Section I : 40 marks (all questions compulsory)
Section II : 40 marks (attempt any 4 out of 6 questions)
1. Force, Work, Power and Energy
Turning effect of force: Examples, clockwise and anti – clockwise moments
Conditions for a body to be in equilibrium (translational and rotational), simple numerical problems
Centre of gravity (qualitative only) with some examples
Uniform circular motion: properties of motion, Differences between centrifugal and centripetal force
Work done, Formula: W = FScosθ, special cases, definition of energy, units of energy
Power: Formula: P=W/t, units of power, simple numerical problems
Mechanical energy: potential energy U = mgh (derivation included)examples
Mechanical energy: kinetic energy K= ½ mv2 (derivation included); forms of kinetic energy: translational, rotational and vibrational – simple examples
Simple numerical problems on mechanical energy in translational motion
Qualitative discussions of electrical, chemical, heat, nuclear, light and sound energy, conversion from one form to another; common examples.
Functions and uses of simple machines: effort E, load L, mechanical advantage MA, velocity ratio VR, input (Wi), output (Wo), efficiency (η),
Relation between η and MA, VR (derivation included); for all practical machines η <1; MA < VR
Lever: principle. First, second and third class of levers; examples: MA and VR in each case
Pulley system: single fixed, single movable, block and tackle; MA, VR and η in each case.
Principle of conservation of energy: U + K = constant for a freely falling body, simple pendulum, simple numerical problems
Refraction of light through a glass block and a triangular prism, refractive index µ = c/V
Qualitative treatment of simple applications such as real and apparent depth of objects in water
Simple numerical problems and approximate ray diagrams required
Applications of refraction of light
Total internal reflection: Critical angle, examples in triangular glass prisms;
Applications of total internal reflection, µ = 1/sinC
Lenses (converging and diverging) including characteristics of the images formed (using ray diagrams only), power of a lens
Sign convention and direct numerical problems using the lens formula
Magnification, Characteristics of images
Visible spectrum from white light; electromagnetic spectrum. scattering of light
Reflection of Sound Waves; echoes: their use; simple numerical problems on echoes.
Meaning and simple applications of natural, damped, forced vibrations and resonance
Loudness, pitch and quality of sound
4. Electricity and Magnetism
Ohm’s Law; concepts of emf, potential difference, resistance; resistances in series and parallel, internal resistance
V=IR, graph of V vs I and resistance from slope, ohmic and non-ohmic resistors,
Electrical power and energy, P = (W/t) = VI = I2 R = V2 /R. Units: SI and commercial
Household circuits – main circuit; switches; fuses; earthing; safety precautions; three-pin plugs; colour coding of wires.
Magnetic effect of a current (principles only, laws not required); electromagnetic induction (elementary); transformer
Fleming’s Left Hand Rule, the DC electric motor- simple sketch of main parts
Fleming’s Right Hand Rule, AC Generator – Simple sketch of main parts
Calorimetry: meaning, specific heat capacity; principle of method of mixtures, C = Q/mΔT
Numerical Problems on specific heat capacity using heat loss and gain and the method of mixtures
Latent heat; loss and gain of heat involving change of state for fusion only
Heating curve for water, Simple numerical problems
6. Modern Physics
Radioactivity and changes in the nucleus; background radiation and safety precautions
nuclear structure, atomic number (Z), mass number (A)
α and β decay with equations showing changes in Z and A.