Since Class 12th Chemistry is divided into theory and a practical section. Therefore, there are held two separate exams in chemistry i.e., ‘Theory Exam’ and ‘Practical Exam’.
There will be no overall choice in the paper. Candidates will be required to answer all questions. Internal choice will be available in two questions of 2 marks each, two questions of 3 marks each and all the three questions of 5 marks each.
Remembering and Understanding: Exhibit memory of previously learned material by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts and answers. Demonstrate understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions and stating main ideas.
Applying: Solve problems to new situations by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way.
Analysing, Evaluating and Creating: Examine and break information into parts by identifying motives or causes. Make inferences and find evidence to support generalizations. Present and defend opinions by making judgments about information, validity of ideas or quality of work based on a set of criteria. Compile information together in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions.
Question 1: Volumetric Analysis
Question 2: Any one or a combination of the following experiments:
Question 3: Qualitative Analysis (single salt).
Project Work [10 Marks]:
The project work is to be assessed by a Visiting Examiner appointed locally and approved by the Council.
The candidate is to creatively execute one project/assignment on an aspect of Chemistry. Teachers may assign or students may select a topic of their choice. Following is only a suggestive list of projects.
Suggested Evaluation criteria for Project Work:
The Visiting Examiner is required to assess students on the basis of the Chemistry Practical file maintained by them during the academic year.
Important Links to Access:
ISC Class 12 Chemistry Sample Papers
ISC Class 12 Chemistry Competitive Questions
ISC Class 12 Chemistry Notes
ISC Class 11 Chemistry Syllabus
Other Links to Access:
ISC Class 12 Physics Syllabus
ISC Class 12 Maths Syllabus
ISC 11th Topic Notes
Other Board Syllabus
General Principles and Processes of Isolation ofElements
p -Block Elements
d -and f -Block Element
Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Aldehydes, Ketones and CarboxylicAcids
Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen
Chemistry in Everyday Life
Solids: their classification based on different binding forces such as: ionic, covalent molecular; amorphous and crystalline solids (difference), metals. Type of unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, number of atoms per unit cell (all types). Calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.
Band theory of metals. Conductors, semiconductors (n and p type) and insulators.
Study of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, liquid in liquid, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, Colligative properties – Raoult’s law of relative lowering of vapour pressure (1st & 2nd), elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure. Use of colligative properties in determining molecular masses of solutes.
Normality, molality, molarity, mole fraction, ppm, as measures of concentration. Definition of the above with examples. Simple problems based on the above.
Electrolytic and electrochemical cells. Redox reactions in electrochemical cells. Electromotive Force (emf) of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells. Relation between Gibbs energy change and emf of a cell.
Conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific, equivalent and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, graphs; Kohlrausch’s Law of electrolysis and Faraday’s Laws of electrolysis. Dry cell and lead accumulator, fuel cells, corrosion.
Meaning of Chemical Kinetics – slow and fast reactions. Rate of a reaction – average and instantaneous rate (graphical representation). Factors affecting rate of reaction: surface area, nature of reactants, concentration, temperature, catalyst and radiation. Order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant. Integrated rate equations and half-life (only for zero and first order reactions), concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Concept of threshold and activation energy, Arrhenius equation.
Effect of temperature on the rate constant of a reaction: Arrhenius equation – K=Ae-Ea/RT, Meaning of the symbols of Arrhenius equation, related graph, evaluation of Ea and A from the graph, meaning of slope of the graph, conversion from exponential to log form of the equation, relationship between the increase in temperature and the number of collisions. Numerical based on Arrhenius equation.
Absorption and Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids and liquids. Catalysis; homogenous and heterogenous, activity and selectivity.
Colloidal state distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension; lyophilic, lyophobic multimolecular, macromolecular and associated colloids; properties of colloids; Brownian movement, Tyndall effect, coagulation and electrophoresis. Emulsion – types of emulsions.
Colloidal State: Thomas Graham classified the substances as crystalloid and colloid, classification of substances on the basis of the particle size i.e. true solution, sol and suspension, colloidal system is heterogeneous. lyophilic and lyophobic colloid;, classification of colloidal solutions as micro, macro and associated colloids.
Preparation of lyophilic colloids. Preparation of lyophobic colloids by colloid mill, peptization, Bredig’s arc method, oxidation, reduction, double decomposition and exchange of solvent method, purification of colloids (dialysis, ultrafiltration, and ultracentrifugation).
Properties of colloidal solutions:Brownian movement, Tyndall effect, coagulation, electrophoresis (movement of dispersed phase), Protection of colloids, Gold number and Hardy- Schulze rule. Emulsions, surfactants, micelles (only definition and examples).
Application of colloids and emulsions in daily life.
Metals: metallurgy, ores, principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction, electrolytic refining. Occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc, iron and silver.
Position in the periodic table, occurrence, electronic configuration, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties. Nitrogen: preparation properties and its uses; compounds of nitrogen: oxides of nitrogen. Ammonia and nitric acid – preparation and properties. Phosphorus – allotropic forms, compounds of phosphorus: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides and oxoacids.
Position in the periodic table, occurrence, electronic configuration, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties. Oxygen: methods of preparation, properties and uses, classification of oxides. Ozone – methods of preparation. Sulphur -allotropic forms. Compounds of sulphur: preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide (industrial process of manufacture). Oxoacids of sulphur (structuresonly).
Position in the periodic table, occurrence, electronic configuration, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; Preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid. Compound of halogen, oxoacids of halogens (structures only), Interhalogen compounds.
Position in the periodic table, occurrence, electronic configuration, trends in physical and chemical properties, inert nature, uses.
Position in the periodic table, occurrence, electronic configuration and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the 3d-series of transition metals – metallic character, ionisation enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour of ions, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation, preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
Lanthanoids and actinoids.
Potassium dichromate: structure, shape, equation of extraction from chromite ore and its use in titration. Oxidising nature in acidic, basic and neutral medium, use in redox titration.
Concept of complexes, definition of ligands, coordination number, oxidation number. IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Isomerism (structural and stereo). Bonding, Werner’s theory, VBT and CFT. Colour, magnetic properties and shapes. Importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological system).
Haloalkanes: General formula, nomenclature and classification. Nature of C–X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions, optical rotation.
Haloarenes: Basic idea, nature of C–X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only).
Nature of C-X bond
Naming the halogen derivatives of alkanes by using common system and IUPAC system for mono, di and tri-halo derivatives.
Preparation of haloalkanes from:
Physical properties: State, melting point, boiling point and solubility.
Chemical properties: nucleophilic substitution reactions (SN1, SN2 mechanism in terms of primary, secondary and tertiary halides)
Reaction with: sodium hydroxide, water, sodium iodide, ammonia, primary amine, secondary amine, potassium cyanide, silver cyanide, potassium nitrite, silver nitrite, silver salt of fatty acid and lithium-aluminium hydride.
Elimination reaction (Saytzeff’s rule) / β elimination.
Reaction with metals: sodium and magnesium (Wurtz’s reaction, Grignard’s reagent preparation).
Chloroform and iodoform: preparation and properties.
Preparation of haloarenes by Sandmeyer and Gattermann reaction, by electrophilic substitution.
Physical properties: State, melting point, boiling point and solubility.
Alcohols: Classification, general formula, structure and nomenclature. Methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.
(i) Classification into monohydric, dihydric and polyhydric alcohols, general formula, structure and nomenclature of alcohols. Difference between primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols in terms of structure, physical properties and chemical properties.
(ii) Methods of preparation:
Uses of alcohols.
(iii) Conversion of one alcohol into another
(iv) Distinction between primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols by Lucas’ Test.
Phenols: Classification and nomenclature. Methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Preparation of phenol from diazonium salt, chlorobenzene (Dow’s process) and from benzene sulphonic acid.
Manufacture from Cumene.
Physical properties: state and solubility
Aliphatic Ethers: General formula, structure and nomenclature. Methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Ethers: structure of ethereal group.
Preparation from alcohol (Williamson’s synthesis).
Physical properties: state, miscibility.
Physical properties – state and solubility.
Chemical properties – preparation of anisole (Williamson’s synthesis), electrophilic substitution (halogenation, nitration and Friedel-Crafts reaction.) Uses of ether.
Nomenclature, structure of methods of preparation of aldehydes and ketones, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes and uses.
Physical properties – state and boiling point.
Tests: difference between formaldehyde and acetaldehyde; aldehydes and ketones.
Uses of aldehydes and ketones.
Aromatic aldehyde (Benzaldehyde)
Lab preparation from toluene by oxidation with chromyl chloride.
Physical properties: state and stability.
Test: distinction between aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes.
Uses of benzaldehyde.
Classification, general formula and structure of carboxylic group. Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties and uses.
Classification of mono and di carboxylic acids with examples.
Preparation of aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acid:
Physical properties: state, boiling point and solubility.
Tests for acids: formic acid, acetic acid and benzoic acid.
Uses of formic acid, acetic acid and benzoic acid.
Aliphatic Amines: General formula and, classification of amines. Structure of the amino group, nomenclature. Methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Methods of preparation:
Physical properties: comparison between primary, secondary and tertiary amines in terms of – state, solubility, boiling point (hydrogen bonding), comparison with alcohols.
Preparation reduction of nitrobenzene.
Physical properties – state, solubility and boiling point.
Tests for aniline.
Uses of aniline.
Cyanides and Isocyanides
Methods of preparation:
Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry. Preparation from aniline;
Properties: Sandmeyer’s reaction, Gattermann reaction and Balz–Schiemann reaction, replacement of diazo group by -H, -OH, -NO2, coupling reaction with phenol and aniline.
Carbohydrates – Definition, Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), D-L configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); Importance of carbohydrates.
Carbohydrates: definition, classification – mono (aldose, ketose), oligo (di, tri, tetra saccharides) and polysaccharides with examples: reducing sugars and non reducing sugars – examples and uses.
Establishment of structures for glucose and fructose (open and cyclic) heating with HI, reaction with hydroxylamine, bromine water, acetic anhydride, nitric acid and phenyl hydrazine.
Test for glucose and fructose (bromine water test with equation).
Disaccharides – structures of sucrose, maltose and lactose (glycosidic linkage).
Polysaccharides – starch, cellulose, glycogen.
Proteins – structural units of proteins. Basic idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins – primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins. Enzymes, hormones – elementary idea only.
Proteins: Amino acids – general structure, classification and zwitter ion formation.
Classification of proteins on the basis of molecular shape; primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary, structures of proteins, denaturation of proteins. (Definitions only. Details and diagrams are not required).
Vitamins – Classification and functions. Vitamins A, B, C, D, E and K: classification (fat soluble and water soluble), deficiency diseases. (Chemical names and structures are not required).
Nucleic Acids – DNA and RNA. Nucleic acids: basic unit – purine and pyrimidine, DNA – structure (double helical), RNA (No chemical structure required). Differences between DNA and RNA.
Definition and classification on different parameters. Methods of polymerisation (addition and condensation), copolymerisation, and some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon polyesters, bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and nonbiodegradable polymers.
Classification based on source, on structure, on mode of polymerisation, on molecular forces, on growth (with free radical mechanism). Preparation of important addition polymers – Polythene, polypropene, PVC, PTFE, polystyrene.
Rubber – natural and synthetic (Buna-N and Buna-S), vulcanisation of rubber.
Preparation of important condensation polymers
polyester, Nylon 66, Nylon 6, Bakelite, melamine (to be learnt in terms of monomers and equations).
Biodegradable polymers – PHBV, Nylon 2 – Nylon 6.
Chemicals in medicines – analgesics, tranquilizers antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
In medicine: antipyretics, analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, 187 antimicrobials, anti-fertility drugs, antihistamines, antibiotics, antacids.
Definition, common examples, uses.
Differences between antiseptics and disinfectants. Structure not required.
Chemicals in food – preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.
Preservatives: role, example (Sodium benzoate).
Artificial sweetening agents: role, examples (aspartame, saccharin, sucralose and alitame).
Soaps and detergents – Classification and their cleansing action.
Soaps and detergents: classification, structure and some important examples.
Advantage of detergents over soaps; classification of detergents into anionic/biodegradable, cationic/non-biodegradable and non-ionic.
Candidates are required to complete the following experiments:
Oxidation-reduction titrations: potassium manganate (VII) / ammonium iron (II) sulphate; potassium manganate (VII) / oxalic acid. The candidate may be required to determine the percentage purity of a compound and the number of molecules of water of crystallization in hydrated salts. In such experiments sufficient working details including recognition of the end point will be given.
Candidates will be required to calculate:
NOTE: Molarity must be calculated upto 4 decimal places at least, in order to avoid error.
The candidates will be required, having been given full instructions, to carry out an experiment on the rate of reaction, e.g. reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid (using different concentrations for either), magnesium and dil. sulphuric acid/ dil. hydrochloric acid (using different concentrations).
Alcoholic group – glycerol
Please Note: Carbylamine and acrolein tests should not be performed.
The student should learn to differentiate between colours, solution, ring and precipitate.
Identification should be of ‘Carbohydrate’ and ‘Protein’ not of individual substances.
Use of universal indicator/pH paper must be taught to the students.
Setting up a simple voltaic cell.
Variation of cell potential in Zn/Zn2+//Cu2+/Cu with change in concentration of electrolyte (CuSO4, ZnSO4) at room temperature.
Qualitative analysis: identification of single salt containing one anion and one cation:
NOTE: Chromyl chloride test not to be performed. For wet test of anions, sodium carbonate extract must be used (except for carbonate). (Insoluble salts such as lead sulphate, barium sulphate, calcium sulphate, strontium sulphate will not be given).
For wet test of anions, sodium carbonate extract must be used (except for carbonate).