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CBSE Class 12 Syllabus Biology

Students preparing for entrance exams and solely hoping to excel in that tend to choose subjects that go light on their preparation, so that their focus can be on the various entrance examinations like AIPMT, AIIMS, NEET etc Among all this stands a very common and important scoring subject Biology !!!


(Code No. 044) 







Term – I  



Reproduction: Chapter – 2, 3 and 4 



Genetics and Evolution: Chapter – 5 and 6 



Term – II 



Biology and Human Welfare: Chapter – 8 and 10 



Biotechnology and its Applications: Chapter – 11 and 12 


Ecology and Environment: Chapter – 13 and 15 


Total Theory (Term – I and Term – II) 


Practicals Term – I  


Practicals Term – II 






Unit-VI Reproduction


Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination – types, agencies and examples; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events – development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes- apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.


Chapter-3: Human Reproduction

Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis – spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea). 


Chapter-4: Reproductive Health 

Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control – need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).

Unit-VII Genetics and Evolution


Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – in human being, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance – haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans -thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.


Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance 

Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central Dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation – lac operon; Genome, Human and rice genome projects; DNA fingerprinting. 


Unit-VIII Biology and Human Welfare 

Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases

Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence – drug and alcohol abuse.

Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare

Microbes in food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.

Unit-IX Biotechnology and its Applications

Chapter-11: Biotechnology – Principles and Processes

Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).

Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Application

Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents. 

Unit-X Ecology and Environment

Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations

Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, population and ecological adaptations; population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes – growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation

Biodiversity – Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites. 




Max. Marks: 15 for each Term 


Evaluation Scheme 






Part A 


One Major Experiment 

Experiment No. – 1 

Experiment No. – 3 

One Minor Experiment 

Experiment No. – 2 

Experiment No. – 4, 5 

Part B 



(3 Spots of 1 mark each) 

B.1, 2, 3, 4, 5 

B.6, 7, 8 

Practical Record + Investigatory Project &Record + Viva Voce  



Practicals should be conducted alongside the concepts taught in theory classes. 

A. List of Experiments  


                  1. Isolate DNA from available plant material such as spinach, green pea seeds, papaya,etc. 

                  2. Prepare a temporary mount to observe pollen germination. 


                  1. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis. 

2. Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH, clarity and presence of any living organism  

3. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture, moisture content, pH and water holding capacity. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them. 


 B. Study/observation of the following (Spotting) 

TERM – I: 

B.1 Flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insects, birds). 

B.2 Identification of stages of gamete development, i.e., T.S. of testis and T.S. of ovary through permanent slides (from grasshopper/mice). 

B.3 Meiosis in onion bud cell or grasshopper testis through permanent slides. 

B.4 T.S. of blastula through permanent slides (Mammalian). 

B.5 Prepared pedigree charts of any one of the genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, ear lobes, widow’s peak and colour-blindness. 

     TERM – II: 

B.1 Common disease – causing organisms like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, any fungus causing ringworm through permanent slides, models or virtual images. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause. 

B.2 Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in xeric conditions. Comment    upon their morphological adaptations. 

B.3 Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in aquatic conditions. Comment    upon their morphological adaptations. 


Practical Examination for Visually Impaired Students of Classes XI and XII 

Evaluation Scheme 

       Max. Marks: 15 for each Term 




Identification/Familiarity with the apparatus 

Written test (Based on given/prescribed practicals) 

Practical Records and Viva 



General Guidelines 

  • The practical examination will be of one-hour duration. 
  • The written examination in practicals for these students will be conducted at the time of practical examination of all other students. 
  • The written test will be of 30 minutes duration. 
  • The question paper given to the students should be legibly typed. It should contain a total of 8 practical skill based very short answer type questions. A student would be required to answer any 5 questions. 
  • A writer may be allowed to such students as per CBSE examination rules. 
  • All questions included in the question paper should be related to the listed practicals. Every question should require about two minutes to be answered. 
  • These students are also required to maintain a practical file. A student is expected to record the listed experiments Term -wise as per the specific instructions for each subject. These practicals should be duly checked and signed by the internal examiner. 
  • The format of writing any experiment in the practical file should include aim, apparatus  required, simple theory, procedure, related practical skills, precautions etc. 
  • Questions may be generated jointly by the external/internal examiners and used for assessment. 
  • The viva questions may include questions based on basic theory/principle/concept, apparatus/materials/chemicals required, procedure, precautions, sources of error etc. 

Class XII Practicals should be conducted alongside the concepts taught in theory classes. 

A. Items for Identification/ familiarity with the apparatus for assessment in practicals (All experiments)  


1. Beaker, flask, petri plates, test tubes, aluminium foil, paint brush, bunsen burner/spirit lamp/water bath. 

2. Starch solution, iodine, ice cubes. 

3. Developmental stages of frog highlighting morula and blastula. 

           TERM -II: 

1. Soil from different sites- sandy, clayey, loamy; Small potted plants, Cactus/Opuntia (model), Large flowers, Maize inflorescence. 

2. Model of Ascaris 

B. List of Practicals 


1. Study of flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insects). 

2. Identification of T.S of morula or blastula of frog (model). 

3. Preparation of pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, colour blindness.

           TERM -II: 

1. Study of the soil obtained from at least two different sites for their texture. 

2. Identify common disease-causing organisms like Ascaris (Model) and learn some common symptoms of the disease that they cause. 

3. Comment upon the morphological adaptations of plants found in xerophytic conditions. 

Note: The above practicals may be carried out in an experiential manner rather than recording observations. 


Prescribed Books: 

1. Biology, Class-XII, Published by NCERT 

2. Other related books and manuals brought out by NCERT (including multimedia) 

3. Biology Supplementary Material (Revised). Available on CBSE webs

Assessment Areas (Theory) 2021-22 Class XII

   Biology (044)



Demonstrate Knowledge and Understanding 



Application of Knowledge / Concepts 



Analyse, Evaluate and Create 




Internal choice would be provided. 

Suggestive verbs for various competencies

Demonstrate, Knowledge and Understanding 

State, name, list, identify, define, suggest, describe, outline, summarize, etc. 

Application of Knowledge/Concepts

Calculate, illustrate, show, adapt, explain, distinguish, etc.

Analyze, Evaluate and Create

Interpret, analyse, compare, contrast, examine, evaluate, discuss, construct, etc.

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